注意：本文是对Professor Marie desJardins的文章“How to Be a Good Graduate Student”的翻译。已经得到Professor Marie desJardins的翻译授权。如果转载，请注明本文的出处，及原作者的姓名。如要用于商业目的，请与原作者Marie desJardins联系。
Note: This is a translation of “How to Be a Good Graduate Student”, by Professor Marie desJardins. Ihave been permitted to translate this article into Chinese from Professor Marie desJardins. If you want to quote this article, please associate the original author Professor Marie desJardins with. If you want to use it for commercial purpose, please contact Professor Marie desJardins.
This is the best guidance to Graduate Student I’ve ever read. I translate it into Chinese with hope that our graduate students in China could also take advantage from it. This whole article contains many sections. However, I’m not a professional interpreter. I will start from the most useful and helpful sections (at least I believe they are). If you also deem it an excellent article, I will continue translate the rest. As my English, as well as my Chinese, limited, please read the original English version directly if you can. If you find some errors in my translation, let me know. I will revise it as soon as possible.
The position of this section within the whole article. (Marked in RED) 这个小节在整个文章中的位置(红色标记)。
1. Introduction 2. Before You Start 3. Doing Research 1. The Daily Grind 2. Staying Motivated 3. Getting to the Thesis 1. Finding an Advisor 2. Finding a Thesis Topic 3. Writing the Thesis 4. Getting Feedback 5. Getting Financial Support 4. Advice for Advisors 1. Interacting With Students 5. Becoming Part of the Research Community 1. Attending Conferences 2. Publishing Papers 3. Networking 6. All Work and No Play... 7. Issues for Women 8. Conclusions 9. Bibliography
=========================================================================== Staying Motivated 保持斗志 At times, particularly in the ``middle years,'' it can be very hard to maintain a positive attitude and stay motivated. Many graduate students suffer from insecurity, anxiety, and even boredom. First of all, realize that these are normal feelings. Try to find a sympathetic ear -- another graduate student, your advisor, or a friend outside of school. Next, try to identify why you're having trouble and identify concrete steps that you can take to improve the situation. To stay focused and motivated, it often helps to have organized activities to force you to manage your time and to do something every day. Setting up regular meetings with your advisor, attending seminars, or even extracurricular activities such as sports or music can help you to maintain a regular schedule. 有时，尤其是在研究生“中期”，似乎觉得很难保持积极向上的斗志。这时，许多研究生都缺乏安全感，倍感焦虑甚至觉得科研无趣。首先，要知道这是一种很正常的感觉。试着找个人聊聊，其他研究生，你的导师，或者校外的朋友。之后，试着找出原因，制定一个切实可行的计划走出困境。想要集中精力保持斗志，制定“每日必做”之类的时间表非常有益，这能帮助你更好的管理时间。比如，定期与导师讨论问题，定期参加学术研讨会，甚至定期参加课余活动，运动，音乐都能帮助你形成规律的日常活动。
Chapman (see [chapman]) enumerates a number of ``immobilizing shoulds'' that can make you feel so guilty and unworthy that you stop making progress. Telling yourself that you *should* have a great topic, that you *should* finish in $n$ years, that you *should* work 4, or 8, or 12 hours a day isn't helpful for most people. Be realistic about what you can accomplish, and try to concentrate on giving yourself positive feedback for tasks you do complete, instead of negative feedback for those you don't. Chapman列举了一些列“雷打不动的事”能让你为自己的没有进展感到内疚和不值。很多人告诉自己，一定要选一个不错的课题，一定要在“N”年内完成，或者每天一定要工作4,8还是12小时，对于大多数人，这些都不起作用。面对自己真正能完成什么要切合实际，完成了某些任务，要努力多给自己一些正反馈，而不是因为没有完成什么而给自己负反馈。
Setting daily, weekly, and monthly goals is a good idea, and works even better if you use a ``buddy system'' where you and another student meet at regular intervals to review your progress. Try to find people to work with: doing research is much easier if you have someone to bounce ideas off of and to give you feedback. 设置每日，每周，每月目标是个不错的主意，要是能跟大伙儿一起做就更好了，和其他学生定期聚在一起，回顾一下大伙儿的进展。找些科研伙伴，如果有人回应你的想法，给你一些反馈，搞科研就会容易许多啦。
Breaking down any project into smaller pieces is always a good tactic when things seem unmanageable. At the highest level, doing a master's project before diving into a Ph.D. dissertation is generally a good idea (and is mandatory at some schools). A master's gives you a chance to learn more about an area, do a smaller research project, and establish working relationships with your advisor and fellow students. 当时间变得难以管理时，把这个项目分成许多更小的项目常常是个不错的办法。在投身于博士论文之前完成硕士研究生的项目常常是个不错的注意（有些学校甚至规定如此）。硕士学习能给你更多的机会了解这一邻域，做个更小的研究项目，建立与导师和同学的良好的工作关系。 The divide-and-conquer strategy works on a day-to-day level as well. Instead of writing an entire thesis, focus on the goal of writing a chapter, section, or outline. Instead of implementing a large system, break off pieces and implement one module at a time. Identify tasks that you can do in an hour or less; then you can come up with a realistic daily schedule. If you have doubts, don't let them stop you from accomplishing something -- take it one day at a time. Remember, every task you complete gets you closer to finishing. “分散敌军，逐一击退”的战略在平日工作也同样有效。集中精力写上一章，一节，甚至拟个草稿，也要比试图完成一整篇论文要合适。把系统分成小份，每次只实现一个模块，要比实现一个大系统要更合理。确认每项任务能在一小时内完成，这样才能得到一个切实可行的日程规划。如果你心存疑虑，别让它们阻止你完成这件事，每天做一点。记住，你所完成的每个小任务，都让你离终点更近。 分析化学仪器分析红外光谱