碳酸酯在合成中作为溶剂和催化剂的综述

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Organic Carbonates as Solvents in Synthesis and Catalysis
Benjamin Schffner
Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94025
Friederike Schffner
385 Curtner Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94306
Sergey P. Verevkin
Department of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany
Armin Brner*
Leibniz-Institut fr Katalyse e.V., Albert-Einstein Strasse 29a, 18059 Rostock, Germany
Chem. Rev., 2010, 110 (8), pp 4554–4581
DOI: 10.1021/cr900393d
Publication Date (Web): March 29, 2010

1. Introduction
2. Synthesis of Organic Carbonates
2.1. Outline
2.2. Recent Trends in Synthesis
2.2.1. Strategies
3. Physico-Chemical Properties
3.1. Thermodynamic Properties
3.1.1. Further Property Studies
3.1.2. First-Principles Calculations
3.2. Mixtures with Other Fluids or Gases
3.2.1. Gas−Liquid Phase Equilibria and Activity Coefficients in Carbonate-Containing Mixtures
3.2.2. Static Method Measurements
3.2.3. Dynamic Method: Isobaric Measurements
3.2.4. Dynamic Measurements: Isothermal Methods
3.2.5. Liquid−Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) of Mixtures Containing Organic Carbonates
3.2.6. Solid−Liquid Phase Equilibria (SLE) of the Mixtures Containing Carbonates
3.2.7. Prediction of the Fluid-Phase Equilibria of the Mixtures Containing Carbonates
3.2.8. Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Carbonates and Their Mixtures
4. Handling
5. Organic Carbonates as Solvent
5.1. Li-Ion Battery Research
5.2. Electroanalytics
5.3. Polymerization
5.3.1. Electropolymerization
5.3.2. Radical and Ionic Polymerizations of Organic Carbonates in Neat Solutions
6. Catalysis in Organic Carbonates
6.1. Product Isolation and Catalyst
6.1.1. Recovery
6.2. Catalysis in Organic Carbonates
6.2.1. Homogeneous Catalysis
Colloids, Heterogeneous, and Biocatalysis
7. Other Applications as Solvent or Agent
7.1. Organic Synthesis
7.2. Synthesis of Ionic Liquids
7.3. Cosmetic Applications
7.4. Cleaning Cosolvents
7.5. Oil Processing Industry
7.6. Lacquer Applications
7.7. Others
8. Summary

介绍的了碳酸酯的合成,理化性质,及其作为溶剂、催化剂的应用

无色,有机烷基的碳酸密度与水相近,高度的偶极非质子溶剂。高偶极矩,高介电常数的性质决定了特别适合用于无水,电化学方面的应用
所以在介绍作为溶剂的应用于时,也主要是介绍锂电池,电化学分析,电化学聚合物等与电化学有关的应用。
还是作为一种新型的绿色溶剂,低毒,低蒸气压,可降解的性质,在有机合成有以下优势,高的选择性,速率,及产率。在有机反应及催化中成功解决了产品分离的问题。但应用范围较小

由于合成一般使用光气作为原料,及产物中产生盐酸易腐蚀设备,所以合成碳酸酯仍是应用瓶颈。

如果其原料可以能过生物的合成方法来保证其广泛的来源,应用将会更进一步的扩大。有机合成方面的应用仍需更多的人进行探索

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