Nature:影响生物钟节律PRMT5蛋白质

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      很多植物春季开花,秋季结果;夜行动物白天睡大觉,夜晚则四处“狩猎”。决定这些生理节律的生物周期被称为“生物钟”。阿根廷研究人员发现,一种蛋白质能通过参与某些生物的生长发育机制,影响它们的生物钟节律。

      阿根廷生理学、分子生物学和神经科学研究院专家埃塞基耶尔·彼得里洛等人在新一期英国《自然》周刊上报告说,十字花科植物——拟南芥的生物周期约为24小时;果蝇通常白天活动,夜晚休息。但研究者培育出了一种生物周期达到72小时的拟南芥,并通过红外线照射使果蝇在白天和夜晚都四处活动。此后,研究者重点检查了与这些拟南芥和果蝇的生物钟有关的生命活动物质,结果发现它们的PRMT5蛋白质都发生了变异。

      阿根廷研究者指出,PRMT5蛋白质通过调控某些生物的基因转录、核糖核酸剪切和细胞增殖,保证有关生物正常生长发育。PRMT5蛋白质变异可导致与开花等重要生命活动有关的植物基因表达发生改变,导致开花提前或推迟,影响其正常生物节律。同样,与PRMT5蛋白质变异有关的另外一些基因变化,也会引起动物与时间概念有关行为的改变。

      专家认为,上述发现有具体应用价值,尤其是在农业方面。比如某些植物的叶子越多,收成越好,而叶子数量取决于花期长短,花期则由生物钟控制。如果通过基因调控,影响这些植物的生物钟,就有望使它们长出更多的叶子,带来更好的经济效益推荐英文摘要:

      Nature  doi:10.1038/nature09470

      A methyl transferase links the circadian clock to the regulation of alternative splicing
      Sabrina E. Sanchez,Ezequiel Petrillo,Esteban J. Beckwith,Xu Zhang,Matias L. Rugnone,C. Esteban Hernando,Juan C. Cuevas,Micaela A. Godoy Herz,Ana Depetris-Chauvin,Craig G. Simpson,John W. S. Brown,Pablo D. Cerdán,Justin O. Borevitz,Paloma Mas,M. Fernanda Ceriani,Alberto R. Kornblihtt& Marcelo J. Circadian rhythms allow organisms to time biological processes to the most appropriate phases of the day–night cycle1. Post-transcriptional regulation is emerging as an important component of circadian networks2, 3, 4, 5, 6, but the molecular mechanisms linking the circadian clock to the control of RNA processing are largely unknown. Here we show that PROTEIN ARGININE METHYL TRANSFERASE 5 (PRMT5), which transfers methyl groups to arginine residues present in histones7 and Sm spliceosomal proteins8, 9, links the circadian clock to the control of alternative splicing in plants. Mutations in PRMT5 impair several circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana and thisphenotypeis caused, at least in part, by a strong alteration in alternative splicing of the core-clock gene PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 9 (PRR9). Furthermore, genome-wide studies show that PRMT5 contributes to the regulation of many pre-messenger-RNA splicing events, probably by modulating 5′-splice-site recognition. PRMT5 expression shows daily and circadian oscillations, and this contributes to the mediation of the circadian regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a subset of genes. Circadian rhythms in locomotor activity are also disrupted in dart5-1, a mutant affected in the Drosophila melanogaster PRMT5 homologue, and this is associated with alterations in splicing of the core-clock gene period and several clock-associated genes. Our results demonstrate a key role for PRMT5 in the regulation of alternative splicing and indicate that the interplay between the circadian clock and the regulation of alternative splicing by PRMT5 constitutes a common mechanism that helps organisms to synchronize physiological processes with daily changes in environmental conditions.


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