Heparin-Chitosan-Coated Acellular Bone Matrix Enhances Perfusion of Blood and Vascularization in Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
Xin-jun Sun, Wei Peng, Zai-liang Yang, Ming-liang Ren, Shi-chang Zhang, Wei-guo Zhang, Lian-yang Zhang, Kai Xiao, Zheng-guo Wang, Bo Zhang and Jin Wang
Currently, the main hurdle in the tissue engineering field is how to provide sufficient blood supply to grafted tissue substitutes in the early post-transplanted period. For three-dimensional, cell-dense, thick tissues to survive after transplantation, treatments are required for hypoxia, nutrient insufficiency, and the accumulation of waste products. In this study, a biomacromolecular layer-by-layer coating process of chitosan/heparin onto a decellularized extracellular bone matrix was designed to accelerate the blood perfusion and re-endothelialization process. The results of in vitro measurements of the activated partial thromboplastin time supported the theory that the combination of chitosan and heparin could bring both anticoagulation and hemocompatibility to the scaffold. A rabbit bone defect model was established for further evaluation of the application of this kind of surface-modified scaffold in vivo. The final results of computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging and histological examination proved that this facile coating approach could significantly promote blood perfusion and re-endothelialization in the early post-transplanted period compared with an acellular bone matrix due to its much-improved anticoagulation property.