Epitaxial growth of three-dimensionally architectured optoelectronic devices
Erik C. Nelson; Neville L. Dias; Kevin P. Bassett; Simon N. Dunham; Varun Verma; Masao Miyake; Pierre Wiltzius; John A. Rogers; James J. Coleman; Xiuling Li; Paul V. Braun
Optoelectronic devices have long benefited from structuringin multiple dimensions on microscopic length scales. However, preserving crystal epitaxy, a general necessity for good optoelectronic properties, while imparting a complex three-dimensional structure remains a significant challenge. Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy of 3D structures would enable new functionalities. Many 3D photonic crystal devices have been proposed, including zero-threshold lasers1, 2, low-loss waveguides3, 4, 5, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells6, 7, 8, but have generally not been realized because of material limitations. Exciting concepts in metamaterials, including negative refraction and cloaking, could be made practical using 3D structures that incorporate electrically pumped gain elements to balance the inherent optical loss of such devices9. Here we demonstrate the 3D-template-directed epitaxy of group III–V materials, which enables formation of 3D structured optoelectronic devices. We illustrate the power of this technique by fabricating an electrically driven 3D photonic crystal LED.