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Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (Fourth Edition)

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发布
2017-02-01
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2017-05-05

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (Fourth Edition)

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发布
2013-02-01
实施
2013-02-28

This guide provides information on the physical infrastructure needed to support bicycling. Facilities are only one of several elements essential to a community's overall bicycle program. Bicycle safety education and training@ encouraging bicycle use@ and enforcing the rules of the road as they pertain to bicyclists and motorists should be combined with engineering measures to form a comprehensive approach to bicycle use. Information on other elements of an overall bicycle program can be obtained from state or local bicycle coordinators and other publications. The provisions for bicycle travel are consistent with@ and similar to@ normal highway engineering practices. Signs@ signals@ and pavement markings for bicycle facilities are presented in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (2)@ which should be used in conjunction with this guide. If there is a discrepancy between the content of this guide and the current edition of the MUTCD@ then the MUTCD supersedes this guide for that case. For construction of bicycle facilities@ applicable state and local construction specifications should be used. PURPOSE Bicyclists should be expected on roadways@ except where prohibited@ and on shared use paths. Safe@ convenient@ well-designed@ well-maintained facilities@ with low-crash frequencies and severities@ are important to accommodate and encourage bicycling. This guide provides information on how to accommodate bicycle travel and operations in most riding environments. It is intended to present sound guidelines that result in facilities that meet the needs of bicyclists and other highway users. Sufficient flexibility is permitted to encourage designs that are sensitive to local context and incorporate the needs of bicyclists@ pedestrians@ and motorists. However@ in some sections of this guide@ suggested minimum dimensions are provided. These are recommended only where further deviation from desirable values could increase crash frequency or severity. This guide has been updated from the previous guide published in 1999. The fact that new guidance is presented herein does not imply that existing bicycle facilities are inadequate or unsafe@ nor does it mandate the initiation of improvement projects. The intent of this document is to provide guidance to designers and planners by referencing a recommended range of design values and describing alternative design approaches. Good design practice involves engineering cost-effective solutions that balance safety and mobility for all transportation modes@ along with preservation of scenic@ aesthetic@ historic@ cultural@ and environmental resources. This guide is therefore not intended to be a detailed design or traffic engineering manual that could supersede the need for application of sound principles by the knowledgeable design or traffic engineering professional.

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (Fourth Edition)

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发布
2012-01-01
实施
2012-06-08

This book provides part of the information necessary for a safe bicycling environment. Facilities are only one of several elements essential to a community??s overall bicycle program. Bicycle safety education and training@ encouraging bicycle use@ and the application and enforcement of the rules of the road as they pertain to bicyclists and motorists should be combined with facilities to form a comprehensive community approach to bicycle use. This guide provides information on facilities. information on other elements of an overall bicycle program can be obtained from state or local bicycle coordinators and other publications. (See References at the end of this Guide.)The provisions for bicycle travel are consistent with@ and similar to@ normal highway engineering practices. Signs@ signals and pavement markings for bicycle facilities which are presented in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD2) should be used in conjunction with this guide. For construction of bicycle facilities@ state and local construction specifications should be used.

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (Revision 3)

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发布
1999-01-01
实施
1999-09-17

Scope of the Problem There are approximately 577@000 bridges throughout the United States. Most of these bridges were constructed during two great building booms@ the Depression years and the Interstate construction era.' A large percentage of the roughly 90@000 bridges built in the 1930s are reaching the end of their useful life and must be replaced or rehabilitated. The 223@000 bridges built between 1956 and 1975 are beginning to pass through their midlife and most will require deck replacement or major repairs. The vagaries of political support and funding for bridges have left many states and localities with insufficient funds to address these important needs. Even agencies that have kept up with most of their needs occasionally encounter funding shortfalls. Limited funds must be managed as wisely as possible. Over the next two decades bridge managers will be attempting to balance limited@ inadequate resources against increasing bridge needs. Structural failure cannot be tolerated@ yet funds often must be thinly spread because they are limited. The best action for each bridge@ considered alone@ is not necessarily the best action when faced with funding constraints. InsufFrcient funds often mean delaying or downscoping the ideal type of project. Also@ some agencies try to keep all bridges for which they are responsible open and without load restrictions@ but others find that limited funds necessitate posting and closing of deteriorated bridges. Besides ensuring the best use of limited funds@ other concerns in the management of the nation's bridges are safety@ preservation of investment@ and serving commerce and the motoring public. Highway and transportation agencies must carefully monitor potentially severe safety problems such as bridges subject to collapse due to scouring or lack of structural support. They must identify premature deterioration and damage of bridges and use these funds to avoid further deterioration and correct damage through proper maintenance and repair. These agencies also must strive to reduce inconvenience and disruptions to commerce and passenger travel due to load and clearance restrictions or closing of bridges. The complexity of the bridge management problem is magnified by the wide variety of bridge designs and materials ranging from simple concrete slabs to steel trusses to cable-stayed bridges. Bridges of different designs and materials deteriorate at different rates. and so do their components. Bridges are made up of major components: deck@ superstructure and substructure@ and numerous subcomponents such as the roadway wearing surface@ railings@ joints@ bearings@ girders@ bracing@ abutments@ and piers. Decisions as to the timing and the nature of maintenance and repairs to components depend not just on their deterioration rate but also interconnections among them. For example@ a deteriorated steel girder may result from chloride contaminated water leaking through poor deck expansion joints. Repair of the joints should precede or accompany the repair or replacement of the girder. Public officials@ administrators@ and bridge engineers have increasingly acknowledged the need for new analytical methods and procedures to assess the current and future conditions of bridges and determine the best possible allocation of funds among various types of bridge maintenance@ repair@ rehabilitation@ replacement@ and improvement work. The advent of BMS is a response to this need. A BMS facilitates budget and program formulation by providing a structured process based upon sound economic and engineering analysis. This process also helps to mediate among all the players that interact in bridge funding and spending decisions: professional staff@ administrators@ elected officials@ and the general public. Each state has responsibility for managing from roughly five hundred to more than twenty thousand bridges. The scope and complexity of the bridge management problem is such that guidelines are needed for state agencies regarding the development@ implementation@ and enhancement of a BMS. These guidelines are intended to inform state agencies of the essential fundamental characteristics of a BMS@ implementation options@ and reasonable expectations@ and to promote areas of uniformity in state practices and data collection. These guidelines will also be useful to regional and local agencies and to bridge and turnpike authorities.

Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems (Revision 1)

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发布
1993-01-01
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2011-09-13

A Guide to Builders Hardware Terminology

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发布
1991-07-01
实施
2011-04-28

This guide provides part of the information necessary for a safe bicycling environment. Facilities are only one of the several elements essential to a community's overall bicycle program. Bicycle safety education and training@ bicycle use encouragement@ and the application and enforcement of the Rules of the Road as they pertain to bicyclists should all be combined with facilities to form a comprehensive community approach to bicycle use. This guide provides information on facilities. Information on other elements of an overall bicycle program can be found in other publications. The provisions for bicycle travel are consistent with and similar to standard highway engineering practices. Signs@ signals@ and markings for bicycle facilities which are presented in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) should be used in conjunction with this guide. State and local specifications for the construction of roads and constructing bicycle facilities and projects.

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities (Revision 2)

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发布
1991-01-01
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1969-12-31

Guide for Bridge Maintenance Management (Frist Edition)

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发布
1980-01-01
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2000-06-20

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