13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres) 标准查询与下载



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5.1x00a0;Exposure to beryllium can cause a potentially fatal disease, and occupational exposure limits for beryllium in air and on surfaces have been established to reduce exposure risks to potentially affected workers (4, 5). Sampling and analytical methods for beryllium are needed in order to meet the challenges relating to exposure assessment and risk reduction. Sampling and analysis methods, such as the procedure described in this test method, are desired in order to facilitate on-site and fixed-site laboratory measurement of trace beryllium. Beryllium analysis results can then be used as a basis for exposure assessment and protection of human health. 1.1x00a0;This test method is intended for use in the determination of beryllium by sampling workplace air and surface dust. 1.2x00a0;This test method assumes that air and surface samples are collected using appropriate and applicable ASTM International standard practices for sampling of workplace air and surface dust. These samples are typically collected using air filter sampling, vacuum sampling or wiping techniques. See Guide E1370 for guidance on air sampling strategies, and Guide D7659 for guidance on selection of surface sampling techniques. 1.3x00a0;Determination of beryllium in soil is not within the scope of this test method. See Test Method D7458 for determination of beryllium in soil samples. 1.4x00a0;This test method includes a procedure for extraction (dissolution) of beryllium in weakly acidic medium (pH of 18201;% aqueous ammonium bifluoride is 4.8), followed by field analysis of aliquots of the extract solution using a beryllium-specific-optically fluorescent dye. 1.5x00a0;The procedure is suitable for on-site use in the field for occupational and environmental hygiene monitoring purposes. The method is also applicable for use in fixed-site laboratories. 1.6x00a0;No detailed operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of suitable fluorometric instruments. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument. This test method does not address comparative accuracy of different devices or the precision between instruments of the same make and model. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8x00a0;This test method contains notes that are explanatory and not part of mandatory requirements of the standard. 1.9x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in the Workplace by Extraction and Optical Fluorescence Detection

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;The health of workers in many industries is at risk through exposure by inhalation to toxic metals and metalloids. Industrial hygienists and other public health professionals need to determine the effectiveness of measures taken to control workplace exposure. This is generally achieved by making workplace air measurements. This test method has been developed to make available a standard methodology for valid exposure measurements for a wide range of metals and metalloids that are used in industry. It will be of benefit to agencies concerned with health and safety at work; analytical laboratories; industrial hygienists and other public health professionals; industrial users of metals and metalloids and their workers; and other groups. 5.2x00a0;This standard test method specifies a generic method for determination of the concentration of metals and metalloids in workplace air samples using ICP-MS. For many metals and metalloids, analysis by ICP-MS may be advantageous, when compared to methods such as ICP atomic emission spectrometry, due to its sensitivity and the presence of fewer spectral interferences. 5.3x00a0;The analysis results can be used for the assessment of workplace exposures to metals and metalloids in workplace air. 1.1x00a0;This standard test method specifies a procedure for sample preparation and analysis of airborne particulate matter for the content of metals and metalloids in workplace air samples using inductively coupled plasmax2013;mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This test method can be used for other air samples provided the user ensures the validity of the test method (by ensuring that appropriate data quality objectives can be achieved). 1.2x00a0;This standard test method assumes that samples will have been collected in accordance with Test Method D7035. 1.3x00a0;This standard test method should be used by analysts experienced in the use of ICP-MS, the interpretation of spectral and matrix interferences and procedures for their correction. 1.4x00a0;This standard test method specifies a number of alternative methods for preparing test solutions from samples of airborne particulate matter. One of the specified sample preparation methods is applicable to the measurement of soluble metal or metalloid compounds. Other specified methods are applicable to the measurement of total metals and metalloids. 1.5x00a0;It is the userx0027;s responsibility to ensure the validity of the standard method for filters of untested matrices. 1.6x00a0;Table 1 provides a non-exclusive list of metals and metalloids for which one or more of the sample dissolution methods specified in this document is applicable.TABLE 1 Applicable Metals and Metalloids

Standard Test Method for Determination of Elements in Airborne Particulate Matter by Inductively Coupled Plasmandash;Mass Spectrometry

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

4.1x00a0;This guide describes standard approaches used to formulate air sampling strategies before actual air sampling occurs. 4.2x00a0;For most workplace air sampling purposes, and for the majority of materials sampled, air sampling strategies are matters of choice. Air sampling in the workplace may be done for single or multiple purposes, such as health impact, hazard or risk assessment, compliance assessment, or investigation of complaints. Problems can arise when a single air sampling strategy is expected to satisfy multiple diverse purposes. 4.2.1x00a0;Proper consideration of limitations of cost, space, power requirements, equipment, analytical methods, training and personnel result in a best available strategy for each purpose. 4.2.2x00a0;A strategy designed to satisfy multiple purposes must be a compromise among several alternatives, and will not be optimum for any one purpose; however, the strategy should be appropriate for the intended purpose(s). 4.2.3x00a0;The purpose or purposes for sampling should be explicitly stated before a sampling strategy is selected in order to ensure that the sampling strategy is appropriate for the intended use. Good sampling practice, legal requirements, cost of the sampling program, and the utility of the results may be markedly different for different intended sampling purposes. 4.3x00a0;This guide is intended for use by those who are preparing to evaluate air quality in a work environment of a location by air sampling, or who wish to obtain an understanding of what information can be obtained by carrying out air sampling. 4.4x00a0;This guide should not be used as a stand-alone document to evaluate any given airborne contaminant(s). 4.5x00a0;This guide cannot take the place of sound professional judgment in development and execution of any sampling strategy. In most instances, a strategy based on a standard practice or method will need to be adjusted due to conditions encountered in the field. Documentation of any professional judgments applied to development or execution of a sampling strategy is essential. 1.1x00a0;This guide describes criteria to be used in defining air sampling strategies for workplace health and safety monitoring or evaluation. Sampling criteria such as duration, frequency, number, location, method, equipment, and timing are all considered. 1.2x00a0;Where air sampling is prescribed by law or regulation, this guide is not intended to take the place of any requirements that may be specified in such law or regulation. 1.3x00a0;Guidance for surface sampling strategies for metals and metalloids is provided in Guide D7659. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Guide for Air Sampling Strategies for Worker and Workplace Protection

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;Exposure to beryllium can cause a potentially fatal disease, and occupational exposure limits for beryllium in air and on surfaces have been established to reduce exposure risks to potentially affected workers (4, 5). Sampling and analytical methods for beryllium are needed in order to meet the challenges relating to exposure assessment and risk reduction. Sampling and analysis methods, such as the procedure described in this test method, are desired in order to facilitate on-site and fixed-site laboratory measurement of trace beryllium. Beryllium analysis results can then be used as a basis for exposure assessment and protection of human health. 1.1x00a0;This test method is intended for use in the determination of beryllium by sampling workplace air and surface dust. 1.2x00a0;This test method assumes that air and surface samples are collected using appropriate and applicable ASTM International standard practices for sampling of workplace air and surface dust. These samples are typically collected using air filter sampling, vacuum sampling or wiping techniques. See Guide E1370 for guidance on air sampling strategies, and Guide D7659 for guidance on selection of surface sampling techniques. 1.3x00a0;Determination of beryllium in soil is not within the scope of this test method. See Test Method D7458 for determination of beryllium in soil samples. 1.4x00a0;This test method includes a procedure for extraction (dissolution) of beryllium in weakly acidic medium (pH of 18201;% aqueous ammonium bifluoride is 4.8), followed by field analysis of aliquots of the extract solution using a beryllium-specific-optically fluorescent dye. 1.5x00a0;The procedure is suitable for on-site use in the field for occupational and environmental hygiene monitoring purposes. The method is also applicable for use in fixed-site laboratories. 1.6x00a0;No detailed operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of suitable fluorometric instruments. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument. This test method does not address comparative accuracy of different devices or the precision between instruments of the same make and model. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8x00a0;This test method contains notes that are explanatory and not part of mandatory requirements of the standard. 1.9x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitat......

Standard Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in the Workplace by Extraction and Optical Fluorescence Detection

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

3.1x00a0;These practices and criteria were developed for occupational exposures. They are intended to (a) protect against clinical disease from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, (b) be measurable by techniques that are valid, reproducible, and readily available, and (c) be attainable with existing technology and protective practices. 1.1x00a0;This practice covers a description of several actions that should be taken to reduce the risk of harmful occupational exposures to humans in environments containing respirable crystalline silica. This practice is intended for, but not limited to, industries regulated by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A separate practice, designed for the unique conditions of the construction industry has been designated Practice E2625. 1.2x00a0;Nothing in this practice shall be interpreted as requiring any action that violates any statute or requirement of any federal, state, or other regulatory agency. 1.3x00a0;Unitsx2014;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. It is the responsibility of the user to consult all material safety data sheets and labels pertaining to any hazardous materials used in this standard.

Standard Practice for Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
C70
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;Airborne hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic (1),4 and analytical methods for the measurement of this species in workplace aerosols are desired. Worker exposure to hexavalent chromium occurs primarily through inhalation (1), and this test method provides a means for exposure assessment to this highly toxic species. Analytical results from this procedure can be used for regulatory compliance purposes (2). 1.1x00a0;This test method specifies a method for the determination of the time-weighted average mass concentration of hexavalent chromium in workplace air samples. 1.2x00a0;The method is applicable to the personal sampling of the inhalable fraction of airborne particles, as defined in ISO8201;7708, and to area (static) sampling. 1.3x00a0;The sample dissolution procedure specifies separate procedures for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium. 1.4x00a0;The method is applicable to the determination of masses of 0.01 x03bc;g to 10 x03bc;g of hexavalent chromium per sample without dilution. 1.5x00a0;The concentration range for hexavalent chromium in air for which this procedure is applicable is approximately 0.1 x03bc;g/m 3 to 100 x03bc;g/m3, assuming 1 m3 of air sample. The range can be extended upwards by appropriate dilution. 1.6x00a0;Interconversion of trivalent and hexavalent chromium species may occur during sampling and sample preparation, but these processes are minimized to the extent possible by the sampling and sample preparation procedures employed. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for the Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in Workplace Air by Ion Chromatography and Spectrophotometric Measurement Using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

3.1x00a0;These practices and criteria were developed for occupational exposures. They are intended to (a) protect against clinical disease from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, (b) be measurable by techniques that are valid, reproducible, and readily available, and (c) be attainable with existing technology and protective practices. 1.1x00a0;This practice covers a description of several actions that should be taken to reduce the risk of harmful occupational exposures to humans in environments containing respirable crystalline silica. This practice is intended for, but not limited to, industries regulated by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A separate practice, designed for the unique conditions of the construction industry has been designated Practice E2625. 1.2x00a0;Nothing in this practice shall be interpreted as requiring any action that violates any statute or requirement of any federal, state, or other regulatory agency. 1.3x00a0;Unitsx2014;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. It is the responsibility of the user to consult all material safety data sheets and labels pertaining to any hazardous materials used in this standard.

Standard Practice for Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
C70
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;Airborne hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic (1),4 and analytical methods for the measurement of this species in workplace aerosols are desired. Worker exposure to hexavalent chromium occurs primarily through inhalation (1), and this test method provides a means for exposure assessment to this highly toxic species. Analytical results from this procedure can be used for regulatory compliance purposes (2). 1.1x00a0;This test method specifies a method for the determination of the time-weighted average mass concentration of hexavalent chromium in workplace air samples. 1.2x00a0;The method is applicable to the personal sampling of the inhalable fraction of airborne particles, as defined in ISO8201;7708, and to area (static) sampling. 1.3x00a0;The sample dissolution procedure specifies separate procedures for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium. 1.4x00a0;The method is applicable to the determination of masses of 0.01 x03bc;g to 10 x03bc;g of hexavalent chromium per sample without dilution. 1.5x00a0;The concentration range for hexavalent chromium in air for which this procedure is applicable is approximately 0.1 x03bc;g/m 3 to 100 x03bc;g/m3, assuming 1 m3 of air sample. The range can be extended upwards by appropriate dilution. 1.6x00a0;Interconversion of trivalent and hexavalent chromium species may occur during sampling and sample preparation, but these processes are minimized to the extent possible by the sampling and sample preparation procedures employed. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.8x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for the Determination of Hexavalent Chromium in Workplace Air by Ion Chromatography and Spectrophotometric Measurement Using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;This practice is intended for the collection of samples of skin contamination to be used for the estimation of dermal exposure to metals and metalloids. The practice is meant for use in the collection of dermal samples that are of interest in hazard evaluation, risk assessment, or other purposes. This practice is meant to provide a standardized means for estimating exposures to body parts that are potentially exposed via dermal contact with airborne or surface contaminants, or both. 5.2x00a0;The techniques described in this practice may not accurately reflect the transferability or bioavailability of metal or metalloid residues by way of dermal contact. 5.3x00a0;Additional information on the principles and methods for the measurement of dermal exposure can be found in ISO 14294. 1.1x00a0;This practice describes a procedure for the wet wiping of potentially exposed skin of workers for the subsequent determination of metals and metalloids. Note 1x2014;For guidance on collection of wipe samples on surfaces other than skin, refer to Guide D7659. 1.2x00a0;This practice does not address the sampling design criteria that are used for hazard evaluation, risk assessment, or other purposes. 1.3x00a0;This practice contains notes that are explanatory and are not part of the mandatory requirements of this practice. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.5x00a0;This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This practice cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This practice is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this practice be applied without consideration of a projectx2019;s many unique aspects. The word x201c;Standardx201d; in the title means only that the practice has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. 1.6x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Practice for Dermal Wipe Sampling for the Subsequent Determination of Metals and Metalloids

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;This practice is intended for the collection of settled dust samples for the subsequent measurement of target metals. The practice is meant for use in the collection of settled dust samples that are of interest in clearance, hazard evaluation, risk assessment, and other purposes. 5.2x00a0;This practice is recommended for the collection of settled dust samples from hard, relatively smooth nonporous surfaces. This practice is less effective for collecting settled dust samples from surfaces with substantial texture such as rough concrete, brickwork, textured ceilings, and soft fibrous surfaces such as upholstery and carpeting. Collection efficiency for metals such as lead from smooth, hard surfaces has been found to exceed 758201;% (E1792). 1.1x00a0;This practice covers the collection of settled dust on surfaces using the wipe sampling method. These samples are collected in a manner that will permit subsequent extraction and determination of target metals in the wipes using laboratory analysis techniques such as atomic spectrometry. 1.2x00a0;This practice does not address the sampling design criteria (that is, sampling plan which includes the number and location of samples) that are used for clearance, hazard evaluation, risk assessment, and other purposes. To provide for valid conclusions, sufficient numbers of samples should be obtained as directed by a sampling plan, for example, in accordance with Guide D7659. 1.3x00a0;This practice contains notes that are explanatory and are not part of the mandatory requirements of this practice. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Practice for Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Wipe Sampling Methods for Subsequent Determination of Metals

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;The capability of this test method to collect and quantitate both particulate and gaseous fluorides over the ranges normally encountered in industrial atmospheres makes it applicable for industrial hygiene evaluation and control purposes. The recommended range of this test method is from 0.005 to 5 mg Fx2212;/m 3 air. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the simultaneous collection and separate measurements of gaseous fluoride (for example, hydrogen fluoride) and particulate fluoride found in certain industrial workplaces. The gaseous fluorides and particulate fluorides collected are reported in terms of fluoride. The method covers sample collection, preparation, and fluoride measurement. 1.2x00a0;The procedure is not applicable to the collection or analysis of gaseous fluoro compounds (for example, fluorocarbon or fluorosulfur compounds). 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fluorides in Workplace Atmospheres by Ion-Selective Electrodes

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

Most oxides of nitrogen are formed during high-temperature combustion. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set primary and secondary air quality standards for NO2 that are designed to protect the public health and the public welfare (40 CFR, Part 50). Oxides of nitrogen are generated by many industrial processes that can result in employee exposures. These are regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) which has promulgated exposure limits for the industrial working environment (29 CFR, Part 1910). These methods have been found satisfactory for measuring oxides of nitrogen in the ambient and workplace atmosphere over the ranges shown in 1.1.1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the continuous determination of total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as NOx, or nitric oxide (NO) alone or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) alone, in the ranges shown in the following table: Range of Concentration GasAmbient AtmosphereWorkplace Atmosphere x03BC;g/m3 (ppm) (Note 1)mg/m3 (ppm) (Note 1) NO10 to 600 (0.01 to 0.5)0.6 to 30 (0.5 to 25) (NO + NO2) = NOx20 to 1000 (0.01 to 0.05)1 to 50 (0.5 to 25) NO220 to 1000 (0.01 to 0.5)1 to 50 (0.5 to 25) Note 18212;Approximate range: 25x00B0;C and 101.3 kPa (1 atm). 1.2 The test methods are based on the chemiluminescent reaction between nitric oxide and ozone. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 9.

Standard Test Methods for Continuous Measurement of Oxides of Nitrogen in the Ambient or Workplace Atmosphere by the Chemiluminescent Method

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
C70
发布
2012
实施

4. Significance and UseTop Bottom 4.1 Exposure to aerosols in the industrial metal removal environment has been associated with adverse respiratory effects. 4.2 Use of this practice will mitigate occupational exposure and effects of exposure to aerosols in the metal removal environment. 4.3 Through implementation of this practice users should be able to reduce instances and severity of respiratory irritation and disease through the effective use of a metal removal fluid management program, appropriate product selection, appropriate machine tool design, proper air handling mechanisms, and control of microorganisms. 1.1 This practice sets forth guidelines to control respiratory hazards in the metal removal environment. 1.2 This practice does not include prevention of dermatitis which is the subject of Practice E2693 but it does adopt a similar systems management approach with many control elements in common. 1.3 This practice focuses on employee exposure via inhalation of metal removal fluids and associated airborne agents. 1.4 Metal removal fluids used for wet machining operations (such as cutting, drilling, milling or grinding) that remove metal to produce the finished part are a subset of metalworking fluids. This practice does not apply to other operations (such as stamping, rolling, forging or casting) that use metalworking fluids other than metal removal fluids. These other types of metalworking fluid operations are not included in this document because of limited information on health effects, including epidemiology studies, and on control technologies. Nonetheless, some of the exposure control approaches and guidance contained in this document may be useful for managing respiratory hazards associated with other types of metalworking fluids. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Practice for Control of Respiratory Hazards in the Metal Removal Fluid Environment

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2012
实施

5. Significance and UseTop Bottom 5.1 Users of this practice must determine for themselves whether the practices described meet the requirements of local or national authorities regulating asbestos or other fibrous hazards. 5.2 Variations of this practice have been described by the Asbestos Research Council in Great Britain (8), the Asbestos International Association (AIA) (RTM 1) (9), NIOSH 7400, OSHA (Reference Method ID8201;160), and ISO8201;8672. Where the counting rules of these methods differ, this is noted in the text. 5.3 Advantages 5.3.1 The technique is specific for fibers. PCM is a fiber counting technique that excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis. 5.3.2 The technique is inexpensive, but requires specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts, at least in so far as the analyst is often required under regulations to have taken a specific training course (for example, NIOSH 582, or equivalent). 5.3.3 The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of the concentrations of airborne fibers. 5.3.4 The procedure provides for a discriminate counting technique that can be used to estimate the percentage of counted fibers that may be asbestos. 5.4 Limitations 5.4.1 The main limitation of PCM is that fibers are not identified. All fibers within the specified dimensional range are counted. Differential fiber counting may sometimes be used to discriminate between asbestos fibers and fibers of obviously different morphology, such as cellulose and glass fiber. In most situations, differential fiber counting cannot be used to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers for purposes of compliance with regulations without additional positive identification. If positive identification of asbestos is required, this must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques, using a different portion of the filter. 5.4.2 A further limitation is that the smallest fibers visible by PCM are about 0.2 ??m in diameter, while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 ??m in diameter. 5.4.3 Where calculation of fiber concentration provides a result exceeding the regulatory standard, non-compliance is assumed unless it can be proven that the fibers counted do not belong to a member or members of the group of fibers regulated by that standard.

Standard Practice for Sampling and Counting Airborne Fibers, Including Asbestos Fibers, in Mines and Quarries, by Phase Contrast Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2012
实施

5. Significance and UseTop Bottom 5.1 Compliance with national and local air emission regulations create the need to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from adhesive-bonded structural wood products. 5.2 This method has been used to estimate the types and amounts of certain VOC that are emitted during production operations. 5.3 The method was originally developed to measure the methanol, formaldehyde, and phenol emitted in a laboratory setting that is designed to simulate the hot pressing, and post pressing conditions of hot stacking and cool down period for exterior plywood and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) processes. This current method generalizes the concept for adhesive-bonded wood products. 1.1 This test method provides a method for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted during the manufacture of engineered wood products using a laboratory environment designed to simulate a defined production process. The method is used for the determination of the amounts of methanol, formaldehyde, phenol and other VOC that may be emitted during conditions designed to simulate production such as hot pressing, the conditions of ???hot stacking??? and ???cool-down??? that occurs post-press. 1.2 The test method was originally developed to measure certain VOC from exterior plywood meeting Voluntary Product Standard PS 1???09 and structural composite lumber products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) meeting Specification D5456. Both of these product types are typically manufactured using phenol-formaldehyde resin based adhesives that meet Specification D2559. 1.3 The test method is suitable for many types of wood products bonded with adhesives. 1.4 This test method is specific for collecting VOC during simulated production of wood products and is not designed to determine general organic emissions from all indoor materials or sources. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Some specific hazards statements are given in Section 7 on Hazards.

Standard Test Method for ???Standard Test Method for Collection of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted During Simulated Manufacturing of Engineered Wood Products Via a Sealed Caul Plate Method

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
B69
发布
2012
实施

HDI is mostly used in the preparation of paints. For the last ten years, the use of isocyanates and their industrial needs have been in constant growth. Diisocyanates and polyisocyanates are irritants to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. They are recognized to cause respiratory allergic sensitization, asthmatic bronchitis, and acute respiratory intoxication (4-7). The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has adopted a threshold limit value - time weighted average (TLV - TWA) of 0.005 ppm (V) or 0.034 mg/m3 (8). The Occupational Safety x0026; Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor (OSHA) has not listed a permissible exposure limit (PEL) for HDI (9). Due to its low LOD and low required volume (15 L), this test method is well suited for monitoring of respiratory and other problems related to diisocyanates and polyisocyanates. Its short sampling times are compatible with the duration of many industrial processes, and its low detection limit with the concentrations often found in the working area.1.1 This test method covers the determination of gaseous hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in air samples collected from workplace and ambient atmospheres. The method described in this test method collects separate fractions. One fraction will be dominated by vapor, and the other fraction will be dominated by aerosol. It is not known at the present time whether this represents a perfect separation of vapor and aerosol, and in any case, there are not separate exposure standards for vapor and aerosol. Therefore, in comparing the results for isocyanate against a standard, results from the two fractions should be combined to give a single total value. The reason for splitting the sample into two fractions is to increase analytic sensitivity for the vapor fraction and also to give the hygienist or ventilation engineer some information concerning the likely state of the isocyanate species. The analyses of the two fractions are different, and are provided in separate, linked, standards to avoid confusion. This test method is principally used to determine short term exposure (15 min) of HDI in workplace environments for personal monitoring or in ambient air. The analysis of the aerosol fraction is performed separately, as described in Test Method D6561. 1.2 Differential air sampling is performed with a segregating device. The vapor fraction is collected on a glass fiber filter (GFF) impregnated with 9-(N-methylaminomethyl) anthracene (MAMA). 1.3 The analysis of the gaseous fraction is performed with a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence detectors. 1.4 The range of application of this test method, using UV and fluorescence detectors both connected in serial, has been validated from 0.006 to 1.12 x03BC;g of monomeric HDI/2.0 mL of desorption solution, which corresponds to concentrations equivalent to 0.0004 to 0.075 mg/m3 of HDI based on a 15-L air sample. Those concentrations correspond to a range of vapor phase concentrations from 0.06 ppb(V) to 11 ppb(V) and cover the established threshold limit value (TLV) value of 5 ppb(V). 1.5 The quantification limit for the monomeric HDI, using the UV detection, has been established as 0.012 x03BC;g/2 mL of desorption solution and as 0.008 x03BC;g/2 mL, using the fluorescence detector. These limits correspond to 0.0008 mg/m3 and 0.0005 mg/m3 respectively for an air sampled volume of 15 L. These values are equal to ten times the standard deviation (SD) obtaine......

Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI) in Air with 9-(N-methylaminomethyl) Anthracene Method (MAMA) in the Workplace

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2012
实施

The primary purpose of this practice is to describe a procedure for collecting near real-time data on airborne particle concentration and size distribution in clean areas as indicated by single particle counting techniques. Implementation of some government and industry specifications requires acquisition of particle size and concentration data using an SPC. The processing requirements of many products manufactured in a clean room involves environmental cleanliness levels so low that a single particle counter with capability for detecting very small particles is required to characterize clean room air. Real-time information on concentration of airborne particles in size ranges from less than 0.1 x03BC;m to 5 x03BC;m and greater can be obtained only with an SPC. Definition of particles larger than approximately 0.05 x03BC;m may be carried out with direct measurement of light scattering from individual particles; other techniques may be required for smaller particles, such as preliminary growth by condensation before particle measurement. Particle size data are referenced to the particle system used to calibrate the SPC. Differences in detection, electronic and sample handling systems among the various SPCs may contribute to differences in particle characterization. Care must be exercised in attempting to compare data from particles that vary significantly in composition or shape from the calibration base material. Variations may also occur between instruments using similar particle sensing systems with different operating parameters. These effects should be recognized and minimized by using standard methods for SPC calibration and operation. In applying this practice, the fundamental assumption is made that the particles in the sample passing through the SPC are representative of the particles in the entire dust-controlled area being analyzed. Care is required that good sampling procedures are used and that no artifacts are produced at any point in the sample handling and analysis process; these precautions are necessary both in verification and in operation of the SPC.1.1 This practice covers the determination of the particle concentration, by number, and the size distribution of airborne particles in dust-controlled areas and clean rooms, for particles in the size range of approximately 0.01 to 5.0 x03BC;m. Particle concentrations not exceeding 3.5 x00D7; 106 particles/m3 (100 000/ft3) are covered for all particles equal to and larger than the minimum size measured. 1.2 This practice uses an airborne single particle counting device (SPC) whose operation is based on measuring the signal produced by an individual particle passing through the sensing zone. The signal must be directly or indirectly related to particle size. Note 18212;The SPC type is not specified here. The SPC can be a conventional optical particle counter (OPC), an aerodynamic particle sizer, a condensation nucleus counter (CNC) operating in conjunction with a diffusion battery or differential mobility analyzer, or any other device capable of counting and sizing single particles in the size range of concern and of sampling in a cleanroom environment. 1.3 Individuals performing tests in accordance with this practice shall be trained in use of the SPC and shall understand its operation. 1.4 Since the concentration and the particle size distribution of airborne particles are subject to continuous variations, the choice of sampling probe configuration, locations and sampling times will affect sampling results. Further, the differences in the physical measurement, electronic and sample handling systems between the vario......

Standard Practice for Continuous Sizing and Counting of Airborne Particles in Dust-Controlled Areas and Clean Rooms Using Instruments Capable of Detecting Single Sub-Micrometre and Larger Particles

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
发布
2012
实施

Endotoxins in metalworking fluid aerosols present potential respiratory health hazards to workers who inhale them. Therefore, a consensus standard is needed to provide reliable data on workplace airborne endotoxin concentrations where metalworking fluids are used. This practice for measuring airborne endotoxin concentrations in metalworking fluid atmospheres will help to foster a better understanding of endotoxin exposure-response relationships. This practice facilitates comparisons of inter laboratory data from methods and field investigative studies.1.1 This practice covers quantitative methods for the personal sampling and determination of bacterial endotoxin concentrations in poly-disperse metalworking fluid aerosols in workplace atmospheres. Users should have fundamental knowledge of microbiological techniques and endotoxin testing.1.2 Users of this practice may obtain personal or area exposure data of endotoxin in metalworking fluid aerosols, either on a short-term or full-shift basis in workplace atmospheres.1.3 This practice gives an estimate of the endotoxin concentration of the sampled atmosphere.1.4 This practice seeks to minimize inter laboratory variation but does not ensure uniformity of results.1.5 It is anticipated that this practice will facilitate inter laboratory comparisons of airborne endotoxin data from metalworking fluid atmospheres, particularly metal removal fluid atmospheres, by providing a basis for endotoxin sampling, extraction, and analytical methods.1.6 In 1997, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) empanelled a Standards Advisory Committee to make recommendations to the Administration regarding measures that the Administration could take to improve the health of workers exposed to metalworking fluids. A report to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for OSHA was submitted in July, 1999. Subcommittee E34.50 believes that the user community would benefit significantly if a standard method was developed to give the community guidance on a methodology for the sampling and analysis of personal airborne endotoxin exposure assessments in facilities using water-miscible metal removal fluids, based on the LAL assay or other endotoxin detection technologies as they become available.1.7 This practice does not attempt to set or imply limits for personal exposure to endotoxin in metalworking fluid aerosols in workplace environments.This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Practice for Personal Sampling and Analysis of Endotoxin in Metalworking Fluid Aerosols in Workplace Atmospheres

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
C70
发布
2011
实施

Exposure to beryllium can cause a potentially fatal disease, and occupational exposure limits for beryllium in air and on surfaces have been established to reduce exposure risks to potentially affected workers (4, 5). Sampling and analytical methods for beryllium are needed in order to meet the challenges relating to exposure assessment and risk reduction. Field-portable sampling and analysis methods, such as the procedure described in this test method, are desired in order to facilitate on-site measurement of beryllium. On-site beryllium analysis results can then be used as a basis for management of protection of human health.1.1 This test method is intended for use in the determination of beryllium by sampling workplace air and surface dust. 1.2 This test method assumes that air and surface samples are collected using appropriate and applicable ASTM International standard practices for sampling of workplace air and surface dust. These samples are typically collected using air filter sampling, vacuum sampling or wiping techniques. See Guide E1370 for guidance on air sampling strategies, and Guide D7659 for guidance on selection of surface sampling techniques. 1.3 Determination of beryllium in soil is not within the scope of this test method. See Test Method D7458 for determination of beryllium in soil samples. 1.4 This test method includes a procedure for on-site extraction (dissolution) of beryllium in weakly acidic medium (pH of 1 % aqueous ammonium bifluoride is 4.8), followed by field analysis of aliquots of the extract solution using a beryllium-specific-optically fluorescent dye. 1.5 The procedure is targeted for on-site use in the field for occupational and environmental hygiene monitoring purposes. 1.6 No detailed operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of suitable fluorometric instruments. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument. This test method does not address comparative accuracy of different devices or the precision between instruments of the same make and model. 1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.8 This test method contains notes that are explanatory and not part of mandatory requirements of the standard. 1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in the Workplace Using Field-Based Extraction and Optical Fluorescence Detection

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
C70
发布
2011
实施

Sulfuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizer, explosives, dyestuffs, other acids, parchment paper, glue, lead acid batteries, textiles, etc., and in the pickling of metals. This test method has been found to be satisfactory in the measurement of sulfuric acid for comparison with relevant occupational exposure limits.1.1 This ion chromatographic test method describes the determination of sulfuric acid mist in air samples collected from workplace atmospheres on a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter. Note 18212;Other filter types such as quartz fiber, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters are also suitable. 1.2 The lower detection limit of this test method is 0.001 mg/sample or 0.017 mg/m3 of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) mist in 60 L of air sampled at 1 L/min. 1.3 This test method is subject to interference from soluble and partially soluble sulfate salts. Other sulfur-containing compounds can be oxidized to sulfate and also interfere. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 No detailed instrument operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of ion chromatography (IC) systems. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument, analytical column, and suppressors used. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 9.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Sulfuric Acid Mist in Workplace Atmospheres Collected on Mixed Cellulose Ester Filters (Ion Chromatographic Analysis)

ICS
13.040.30 (Workplace atmospheres)
CCS
Z15
发布
2011
实施



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