17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments) 标准查询与下载



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5.1x00a0;These thermocouple combinations have been developed for specific applications by the wire manufacturer(s). If additional information is required, consult ASTM MNL 12 or the wire manufacturer. 1.1x00a0;This guide consists of reference tables that give temperature-electromotive force (emf) relationships for special purpose, limited use, thermocouple combinations that do not have a letter designation. 1.2x00a0;Extension wire or compensating extension wires are not covered by this guide. ASTM MNL 122 or thermocouple alloy suppliers should be consulted. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

Standard Guide for Temperature Electromotive Force (emf) Tables for Non-Letter Designated Thermocouple Combinations

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;This test is important because the accuracy of a temperature measurement by a thermocouple is directly related to the emf stability of the thermoelements. 5.2x00a0;This test is used to verify that the tested thermoelements meet the intended requirements. 5.3x00a0;This test is useful in comparing the emf stability of two base metal thermoelements under the same conditions. The test and reference emf may be measured either simultaneously or alternately. 5.4x00a0;The relative stabilities of base metal thermoelements determined by this test are valid only under the specified test conditions. Results will be affected by changes in any of the following conditions: (1) temperature profile or gradient along the length of the thermoelements; (2) abundance, velocity and composition of the air surrounding the test pieces; (3) thermoelectric inhomogeneity of the test thermoelements; (4) stability of the platinum thermoelement. 5.5x00a0;The test does not address the determination of base metal thermoelement stabilities over a series of temperature changes. 5.6x00a0;The reliability of this test depends on the emf stability of the reference platinum thermoelement. For testing the relative emf stability of base-metal thermoelements, a reference element of platinum that has sufficient thermoelectric stability to determine any significant change in emf of base-metal thermoelements shall be used. To ascertain that the experimental method protects the platinum sufficiently from degradation, the method shall be validated by performing the procedure described in Appendix X1 prior to the actual test. 5.7x00a0;The test result does not apply to applications in which the temperature distribution, for a given measuring junction temperature, changes with time. 1.1x00a0;This guide provides a method for measuring the emf stability of base-metal thermoelement materials in air referenced to platinum at specified constant elevated temperatures using dual, simultaneous, emf indicators, or using a single emf indicator, with the test and reference emf measured alternately. This test is conducted over a period of weeks. 1.2x00a0;A calibrated platinum-rhodium/platinum thermocouple is used as a reference standard to establish the test temperature. 1.3x00a0;The useful life of a thermocouple depends on the stability of the emf generated at given temperatures for a required time interval. This method provides a quantitative measure of the stability of individual thermoelements. By combining the results of the positive (P) and negative (N) thermoelements, the stability of a thermocouple comprised of both P and N thermoelements may be obtained.......

Standard Guide for Measuring Electromotive Force (emf) Stability of Base-Metal Thermoelement Materials with Time in Air

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

4.1x00a0;This guide provides guidelines and basic test methods for the use of infrared thermometers. The purpose of this guide is to provide a basis for users of IR thermometers to make more accurate measurements, to understand the error in measurements, and reduce the error in measurements. 1.1x00a0;This guide covers electronic instruments intended for measurement of temperature by detecting intensity of thermal radiation exchanged between the subject of measurement and the sensor. 1.2x00a0;The devices covered by this guide are referred to as IR thermometers. 1.3x00a0;The IR thermometers covered in this guide are instruments that are intended to measure temperatures below 1000x00b0;C and measure a wide band of thermal radiation in the infrared region. 1.4x00a0;This guide covers best practice in using IR thermometers. It addresses concerns that will help the user make better measurements. It also provides graphical tables to help determine the accuracy of measurements. 1.5x00a0;Details on the design and construction of IR thermometers are not covered in this guide. 1.6x00a0;This guide does not cover medium- and high-temperature IR thermometry (above 1000x00b0;C). It does not address the use of narrowband IR thermometers. 1.7x00a0;The values of quantities stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values of quantities in parentheses are not in SI and are optional. 1.8x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Wideband, Low Temperature Infrared Thermometers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;These verification tests may be performed by users or calibrators of thermocouples. The methods are useful for both new and used thermocouples. They provide a means to assess the accuracy with which a thermocouple is capable of measuring temperature. 5.2x00a0;Results from these tests may be used to determine whether to use or discard a thermocouple. If the thermocouple is subsequently used, the test results may be included in the measurement uncertainty budget. In many circumstances, the results of in situ verifications may be used to recalibrate a used thermocouple. Laboratory measurements, on the other hand, may be used only to verify the original thermocouple calibration or to determine the uncertainty of temperature measurements with the tested thermocouple. Laboratory measurements generally do not suffice to determine the emf-versus-temperature response of a thermocouple found to be inhomogeneous. 1.1x00a0;This guide describes tests that may be applied to new or previously used thermocouples for the purpose of verification. Some of the tests perform a suitable verification by themselves, but many tests merely alert the user to serious problems if the thermocouple fails the test. Some of the tests examine inhomogeneity and others detect wire or measuring-junction breakage. For Style U mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouples with ungrounded measuring junctions, this guide includes tests that examine the electrical isolation of the sheath as well as sheath deterioration. 1.2x00a0;The first set of tests involves measurement verifications designed to be performed while the thermocouple is in its usage environment. The second set is composed of electrical tests and visual inspections designed to evaluate the functionality of the thermocouple; these tests may be performed either in house or in a calibration laboratory. The third set is made up of homogeneity tests designed to be performed in a calibration laboratory. Some of the tests provide simple methods to identify some, but not all, defective thermocouples, and alone do not suffice to verify a used thermocouple. They may need to be complemented by other tests for a complete verification. 1.3x00a0;The reader of this guide should decide which of the described tests need to be performed. This decision is dependent on whether the reader uses thermocouples for temperature measurement or performs thermocouple calibrations in a laboratory. For users of thermocouples, it is recommended that appropriate tests from the first and second sets be performed initially, as they provide immediate on-site verification of the thermocouples. The appropriateness of a test is dependent upon the userx2019;s temperature measurement uncertainty requirements. Some tests may have lower uncertainties in their verification measurements than others. If these tests do not clearly determine the suitability of the thermocouples, they should be sent to a calibration laboratory for performing appropriate tests from the third set, which give the most complete information on the thermocouple homogeneity. For those who perform thermocouple calibrations in a laboratory, it is recommended that appropriate tests from the second and third sets be performed prior to calibration. The appropriateness of a test is dependent on the calibration laboratoryx2019;s capability and convenience for performing the test, as well as the characterist......

Standard Guide for Thermocouple Verification

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;This guide provides guidelines and basic test methods for the accuracy verification of infrared thermometers. It includes test set-up and calculation of uncertainties. It is intended to provide the user with a consistent method, while remaining flexible in the choice of calibration equipment. It is understood that the uncertainty obtained depends in large part upon the apparatus and instrumentation used. Therefore, since this guide is not prescriptive in approach, it provides detailed instruction in uncertainty evaluation to accommodate the variety of apparatus and instrumentation that may be employed. 5.2x00a0;This guide is intended primarily for calibrating handheld infrared thermometers. However, the techniques described in this guide may also be appropriate for calibrating other classes of radiation thermometers. It may also be of help to those calibrating thermal imagers. 5.3x00a0;This guide specifies the necessary elements of the report of calibration for an infrared thermometer. The required elements are intended as a communication tool to help the end user of these instruments make accurate measurements. The elements also provide enough information, so that the results of the calibration can be reproduced in a separate laboratory. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers electronic instruments intended for measurement of temperature by detecting the intensity of thermal radiation exchanged between the subject of measurement and the sensor. 1.2x00a0;The devices covered by this test method are referred to as infrared thermometers in this document. 1.3x00a0;The infrared thermometers covered in this test method are instruments that are intended to measure temperatures below 1000x00b0;C, measure thermal radiation over a wide bandwidth in the infrared region, and are direct-reading in temperature. 1.4x00a0;This guide covers best practice in calibrating infrared thermometers. It addresses concerns that will help the user perform more accurate calibrations. It also provides a structure for calculation of uncertainties and reporting of calibration results to include uncertainty. 1.5x00a0;Details on the design and construction of infrared thermometers are not covered in this test method. 1.6x00a0;This test method does not cover infrared thermometry above 1000x00b0;C. It does not address the use of narrowband infrared thermometers or infrared thermometers that do not indicate temperature directly. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.8x00a0;The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

Standard Test Method for Calibration and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;This test method measures the time to extrapolated onset of an exothermic reaction under constant temperature (isothermal) conditions for reactions which have an induction period, for example, those which are catalytic, autocatalytic, or accelerating in nature or which contain reaction inhibitors. 5.2x00a0;The RIT determined by this test method is an index measurement that is useful for comparing one material to another at the test temperature of interest and in the same apparatus type only. 5.3x00a0;This test method is a useful adjunct to dynamic thermal tests, such as Test Method E537, which are performed under conditions in which the sample temperature is increased continuously at constant rate. Results obtained under dynamic test conditions may result in higher estimates of temperature at which an exothermic reaction initiates because the detected onset temperature is dependent upon the heating rate and because dynamic methods allow insufficient time for autocatalytic reactions to measurably affect the onset temperature. 5.4x00a0;RIT values determined under a series of isothermal test conditions may be plotted as their logarithm versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature to produce a plot, the slope of which is proportional to the activation energy of the reaction as described in Test Method E2070. 5.5x00a0;This test method may be used in research and development, manufacturing, process and quality control, and regulatory compliance. 5.6x00a0;This test method is similar to that for Oxidation Induction Time (OIT) (for example, Specification D3350 and Test Methods D3895, D4565, D5483, D6186, and E1858) where the time to the oxidation reaction under isothermal test conditions is measured. The OIT test method measures the presence of antioxidant packages and is a relative measurement of a materialx0027;s resistance to oxidation. 1.1x00a0;This test method describes the measurement of Reaction Induction Time (RIT) of chemical materials that undergo exothermic reactions with an induction period. The techniques and apparatus described may be used for solids, liquids, or slurries of chemical substances. The temperature range covered by this test method is typically from ambient to 400x00b0;C. This range may be extended depending upon the apparatus used. 1.2x00a0;The RIT is a relative index value, not an absolute thermodynamic property. As an index value, the RIT value may change depending upon experimental conditions. A comparison of RIT values may be made only for materials tested under similar conditions of apparatus, specimen size, and so forth. Furthermore, the RIT value may not predict behavior of large quantities of material. 1.3x00a0;The RIT shall not be used by itself to establish a safe operating temperature. It may be used in conjunction with other test methods (for example, E487, E537, and E1981) as part of a hazard analysis of a particular operation. 1.4x00a0;This test method may be used for RIT values greater than 15 min (as relative imprecision increases at shorter periods). 1.5x00a0;This test method is used to study catalytic, autocatalytic, and accelerating reactions. These reactions depend upon time as well as temperature. Such reactions are often studied by fixing one experimental parameter (that is, time or temperature) and then measuring the other parameter (that is, temperature or ......

Standard Test Method for Reaction Induction Time by Thermal Analysis

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

4.1x00a0;Section 5 identifies essential instrumentation and accessories required to perform thermal analysis, rheometry, or viscometry for a variety of different instruments. The appropriate generic instrument description should be included in any test method describing use or application of the thermal analysis, rheometry, or viscometry instrumentation described herein. 4.2x00a0;Units included in these descriptions are used to identify needed performance criteria and are considered typical. Other units may be used when including these descriptions in a specific test method. Items underlined constitute required inputs specifically established for each test method (for example, sensitivity of temperature sensor). 4.3x00a0;Additional components and accessories may be added as needed, with the appropriate performance requirements specified. Items listed in these descriptions but not used in a test method (for example, vacuum system) may be deleted. 1.1x00a0;This practice covers generic descriptions of apparatus used for thermal analysis or rheometry measurements and its purpose is to achieve uniformity in description of thermal analysis, rheometry, and viscometer instrumentation throughout standard test methods. These descriptions are intended to be used as templates for inclusion in any test method where the thermal analysis instrumentation described herein is cited. 1.2x00a0;Each description contains quantifiable instrument performance requirements to be specified for each test method. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Practice for Description of Thermal Analysis and Rheology Apparatus

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers liquid-in-glass thermometers graduated in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit that are frequently identified and used in methods under the jurisdiction of the various technical committees within ASTM. The various thermometers specified are listed in Table 1. The inclusion of an IP number in Table 1 indicates, where appearing, that the thermometer specification has been jointly agreed upon by the British Institute of Petroleum (IP) and ASTM. 1.2x00a0;This specification also covers adjustable-range enclosed-scale thermometers, graduated in degrees Celsius, which are used in ASTM methods. 1.3x00a0;The enclosed-scale thermometers are commonly called Beckmann thermometers. They are suitable for measuring small temperature differences not exceeding 6 x00b0;C within a larger range of temperature. The thermometers are unsuitable for measuring Celsius- or kelvin-scale temperatures unless they have been compared with standard instruments immediately before use. 1.4x00a0;An alphabetic list of the ASTM Thermometers included in this standard is given in Table 2. 1.5x00a0;A list of ASTM Thermometers is given in Table 3 to facilitate selection according to temperature range, immersion, and scale-error requirements. Note 1:x00a0;For a listing of thermometers recommended for general laboratory use, the Scientific Apparatus Makers Association Specifications for General Purpose Glass Laboratory Thermometers may be consulted.2 Note 2:x00a0;It has been found by experience that these ASTM Thermometers, although developed in general for specific tests, may also be found suitable for other applications, thus precluding the need for new thermometer specifications differing in only minor features. However, it is suggested that technical committees contact Subcommittee E20.05 before choosing a currently specified thermometer for a new method to be sure the thermometer will be suitable for the intended application. 1.6x00a0;The thermometers found in Table 1 contain mercury, mercury thallium eutectic alloy, or toluene or other suitable liquid colored with a permanent red dye. For low-hazard precision non-mercury alternatives to E1 thermometers, see Specification E2251. 1.7x00a0;WARNINGx2014;Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAx2019;s website- http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm - for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state......

Standard Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;Thermogravimetric analyzers are used to characterize a broad range of materials. In most cases, one of the desired values to be assigned in thermogravimetric measurements is the temperature at which significant changes in specimen mass occur. Therefore, the temperature axis (abscissa) of all apparent-mass-change curves must be calibrated accurately, either by direct reading of a temperature sensor, or by adjusting the programmer temperature to match the actual temperature over the temperature range of interest. In the latter case, this is accomplished by the use of either melting point or magnetic transition standards. 5.2x00a0;This practice permits interlaboratory comparison and intralaboratory correlation of instrumental temperature scale data. 1.1x00a0;This practice describe the temperature calibration of thermogravimetric analyzers over the temperature range from 25 to 1500x00b0;C and is applicable to commercial and custom-built apparatus. This calibration may be accomplished by the use of either melting point standards or magnetic transition standards. 1.2x00a0;The mass change curve in thermogravimetry results from a number of influences, some of which are characteristic of the specimen holder assembly and atmosphere rather than the specimen. The variations from instrument to instrument occur in the point of measurement of the temperature, the nature of the material, its size and packing, the geometry and composition of the specimen container, the geometry and design of the furnace, and the accuracy and sensitivity of the temperature sensor and displaying scales. These all contribute to differences in measured temperatures, which may exceed 20x00b0;C. In addition, some sample holder assemblies will show variations of measured temperature with sample size or heating/cooling rate, or both. Since it is neither practical nor advisable to standardize sample holders or thermobalance geometries, instruments may be calibrated by measurement of the deviation of a melting or magnetic (Curie Point) transition temperature from the standard reference temperature. This deviation can be applied as a correction term to subsequent measurements. 1.3x00a0;This practice assumes that the indicated temperature of the instrument is linear over the range defined by a two-point calibration and that this linearity has been verified. These two calibration temperatures should be as close to the experimental measurements to be made as possible. 1.4x00a0;This practice describes two procedures for temperature calibration of thermogravimetric analyzers using any type balance. Procedure A uses melting point standards for calibration. Procedure B uses magnetic transition standards for calibration. Note 1:x00a0;Since all electronic data treatments are not equivalent, the user shall verify equivalency prior to use. 1.5x00a0;The data generated by these procedures can be used to correct the temperature scale of the instrument by either a positive or negative amount using either a two-point temperature calibration procedure or a multi-point temperature calibration with best line fit for the generated data.

Standard Practice for Calibration of Temperature Scale for Thermogravimetry

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

1.1x00a0;The purpose of this standard is to specify liquid-in-glass ASTM thermometers using low hazard thermometric liquids defined in this standard. 1.2x00a0;This standard specifies liquid-in-glass thermometers graduated in degrees Celsius or degrees Fahrenheit that are frequently identified and used in methods under the jurisdiction of the various technical committees within ASTM. The current approved thermometers are listed in Table 1. 1.3x00a0;The technical requirements for the thermometric liquids used in the thermometers in Table 1 are specified in Annex A1. Tests for conformity to the technical requirements are also found in Annex A1. Note 1:x00a0;It has been found by experience that ASTM Thermometers, although developed in general for specific tests, may also be found suitable for other applications, thus precluding the need for new thermometer specifications differing in only minor features. However, it is suggested that technical committees contact E20.05 before choosing a currently designated thermometer for a new method to be sure the thermometer will be suitable for the intended application. 1.4x00a0;For full rationale, see Appendix X1. 1.5x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

Standard Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

4.1x00a0;The test method described in this standard will ensure that the thermometers listed in Specifications E1 and E2251 will indicate temperatures within the maximum scale errors listed, be compatible with the apparatus, and serve the purpose for which they were designed. 4.2x00a0;Thermometers that do not pass the visual and dimensional inspection tests may give erroneously high or low temperature readings, or may not fit into existing equipment used in ASTM methods. For accurate temperature measurements the scale readings of the thermometer should be verified as described in this test method. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers visual and dimensional inspection and test for scale accuracy to be used in the verification of liquid-in-glass thermometers as specified in Specifications E1 and E2251. However, these procedures may be applied to other liquid-in-glass thermometers.2 Note 1:x00a0;The use of NIST SP250-232 is recommended. 1.2x00a0;Warningx2014;Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAx2019;s website- http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm - for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state may be prohibited by state law.- 1.3x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Inspection and Verification of Thermometers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

5.1x00a0;These test procedures confirm and document that the thermocouple assembly was not damaged prior to or during the installation process and that the extension wires are properly connected. 5.2x00a0;The test procedures should be used when thermocouple assemblies are first installed in their working environment. 5.3x00a0;In the event of subsequent thermocouple failure, these procedures will provide benchmark data to verify failure and may help to identify the cause of failure. 5.4x00a0;The usefulness and purpose of the applicable tests will be found within each category. 5.5x00a0;These tests are not meant to ensure that the thermocouple assembly will measure temperatures accurately. Such assurance is derived from proper thermocouple and instrumentation selection and proper placement in the location at which the temperature is to be measured. For further information, the reader is directed to MNL 12, Manual on the Use of the Thermocouples in Temperature Measurement2 which is an excellent reference document on metal sheathed thermocouple uses. 1.1x00a0;This guide covers methods for users to test metal sheathed thermocouple assemblies, including the extension wires just prior to and after installation or some period of service. 1.2x00a0;The tests are intended to ensure that the thermocouple assemblies have not been damaged during storage or installation, to ensure that the extension wires have been attached to connectors and terminals with the correct polarity, and to provide benchmark data for later reference when testing to assess possible damage of the thermocouple assembly after operation. Some of these tests may not be appropriate for thermocouples that have been exposed to temperatures higher than the recommended limits for the particular type. 1.3x00a0;The tests described herein include methods to measure the following characteristics of installed sheathed thermocouple assemblies and to provide benchmark data for determining if the thermocouple assembly has been subsequently damaged in operation: 1.3.1x00a0;Loop Resistance: 1.3.1.1x00a0;Thermoelements, 1.3.1.2x00a0;Combined extension wires and thermoelements. 1.3.2x00a0;Insulation Resistance: 1.3.2.1x00a0;Insulation, thermocouple assembly, 1.3.2.2x00a0;Insulation, thermocouple assembly and extension wires. 1.3.3x00a0;Seebeck Voltage: 1.3.3.1x00a0;Thermoelements, 1.3.3.2x00a0;Combined extension wires and thermocouple assembly. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the sa......

Standard Guide for Testing Sheathed Thermocouples, Thermocouples Assemblies, and Connecting Wires Prior to, and After Installation or Service

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

6.1x00a0;This guide presents techniques on the use of thermocouples and associated equipment for measuring temperature in creep and stress-rupture testing in air at temperatures up to 1800x00b0;F (1000x00b0;C). The duration of a creep test ranges from a few hours to several thousand hours or more at elevated temperatures, at least partially unattended by operators. Such tests are normally ended before test specimen failure. Stress-rupture tests may operate at higher stresses, higher temperatures, and for shorter times than creep tests, but they normally continue until the specimen has achieved its required life or has failed. 6.2x00a0;Since creep and stress-rupture properties are highly sensitive to temperature, users should make every effort practicable to make accurate temperature measurements and provide stable control of the test temperature. The goal of this guide is to provide users with good pyrometric practice and techniques for precise temperature control for creep and stress-rupture testing. 6.3x00a0;Techniques are given in this guide for maintaining a stable temperature throughout the period of test. 6.4x00a0;If the techniques of this guide are followed, the difference between indicated temperature and true temperature, as used in E139, E292, and E21 will be reduced to the lowest practical level. 1.1x00a0;This guide covers the use of ANSI thermocouple Types K, N, R, and S for creep and stress-rupture testing at temperatures up to 1800x00b0;F (1000x00b0;C) in air at one atmosphere of pressure. It does not cover the use of sheathed thermocouples. 1.2x00a0;The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Guide for Use of Thermocouples in Creep and Stress-Rupture Testing to 1800deg;F (1000deg;C) in Air

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;Thermomechanical analyzers are employed in their various modes of operation (penetration, expansion, flexure, etc.) to characterize a wide range of materials. In most cases, the value to be assigned in thermomechanical measurements is the temperature of the transition (or event) under study. Therefore, the temperature axis (abscissa) of all TMA thermal curves must be accurately calibrated either by direct reading of a temperature sensor or by adjusting the programmer temperature to match the actual temperature over the temperature range of interest. 1.1x00a0;This test method describes the temperature calibration of thermomechanical analyzers from8201;x2212;8201;50 to 1100x00b0;C. (See Note 1.) 1.2x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3x00a0;This standard is similar to ISO 11359x2013;1 but addresses a larger temperature range and utilizes additional calibration materials. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 7 and Note 10.

Standard Test Method for Temperature Calibration of Thermomechanical Analyzers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

4.1x00a0;This specification describes the physical requirements of mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed base metal thermocouples and establishes suitable test criteria for their evaluation. 4.2x00a0;Standardized dimensional requirements and acceptable allowances for manufacturing variations, are given. 4.3x00a0;A set of standard tests to be applied to all thermocouples covered by this specification are described, in addition to optional tests from which applicable additional requirements may be selected. 4.4x00a0;Warningx2014;Users should be aware that certain characteristics of thermocouples might change with time and use. 4.4.1x00a0;If a thermocouplex0027;s designed shipping, storage, installation, or operating temperature has been exceeded, the thermocouplex2019;s moisture seal may have been compromised and may no longer prevent the deleterious intrusion of water vapor. Consequently, the thermocouplex0027;s condition established by test at the time of manufacture may not apply later after an extended period of use, and retesting may become necessary. 4.4.2x00a0;In addition, inhomogeneities can develop in thermoelements because of exposure to temperature, even in cases where the maximum exposure temperatures have been lower than the suggested upper temperature limits of Table 1. For this reason, calibration of thermocouples destined for delivery to a customer is not recommended (see S6.1). TABLE 1 Suggested Upper Temperature Limits for Sheathed ThermocouplesNote 1x2014;This table gives the suggested upper temperature limits for the various thermocouples in several common sheath sizes. It does not take into account environmental temperature limitations of the sheath material itself, nor does it address compatibility considerations between the thermoelement materials and the sheath containing them. The actual maximum practical temperature in a particular situation will generally be limited to the lowest temperature among the several factors involved. The purchaser should consult ASTM Manual 125 and other literature sources for further information about applications. Note 2x2014;The temperature limits given here are intended only as a guide to the purchaser and should not be taken as absolute values nor as guarantees of satisfactory life or performance. These types and sizes are sometimes used at temperatures above the given limits, but usually at the expense of stability or service life, or both. In other instances, it may be necessary to reduce the given limits in order to achieve adequate service.

Standard Specification for Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Base Metal Thermocouples

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;This test method may be used to determine and validate the performance of a particular thermomechanical analyzer apparatus. 5.2x00a0;This test method may be used to determine and validate the performance of a particular method based upon thermomechanical analyzer temperature or length change measurements. 5.3x00a0;This test method may be used to determine the repeatability of a particular apparatus, operator, or laboratory. 5.4x00a0;This test method may be used for specification and regulatory compliance purposes. 1.1x00a0;This test method provides procedures for validating temperature and length change measurements of thermomechanical analyzers (TMA) and analytical methods based upon the measurement of temperature and length change. Performance parameters include temperature repeatability, linearity and bias; and dimension change repeatability, detection limit, quantitation limit, linearity and bias. 1.2x00a0;Validation of apparatus performance and analytical methods is a necessary requirement for quality initiatives. Results may also be used for legal purposes. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Performance Validation of Thermomechanical Analyzers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;Most thermal analysis experiments are carried out under increasing temperature conditions where temperature is the independent parameter. Some experiments, however, are carried out under isothermal temperature conditions where the elapsed time to an event is measured as the independent parameter. Isothermal Kinetics (Test Methods E2070), Thermal Stability (Test Method E487), Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) (Test Methods D3895, D4565, D5483, E1858, and Specification D3350 and Loss-on-Drying (Test Method E1868) are common examples of these kinds of experiments. 5.2x00a0;Modern scientific instruments, including thermal analyzers, usually measure elapsed time with excellent precision and accuracy. In such cases, it may only be necessary to confirm the performance of the instrument by comparison to a suitable reference. Only rarely will it may be required to correct the calibration of an instrumentx0027;s elapsed time signal through the use of a calibration factor. 5.3x00a0;It is necessary to obtain elapsed time signal conformity only to 0.1 times the repeatability relative standard deviation (standard deviation divided by the mean value) expressed as a percent for the test method in which the thermal analyzer is to be used. For those test methods listed in Section 2 this conformity is 0.18201;%. 1.1x00a0;This test method describes the calibration or performance confirmation of the elapsed-time signal from thermal analyzers. 1.2x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3x00a0; There is no ISO standard equivalent to this test method. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Elapsed Time Calibration of Thermal Analyzers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;This guide provides guidelines and basic test methods for the accuracy verification of infrared thermometers. It includes test set-up and calculation of uncertainties. It is intended to provide the user with a consistent method, while remaining flexible in the choice of calibration equipment. It is understood that the uncertainty obtained depends in large part upon the apparatus and instrumentation used. Therefore, since this guide is not prescriptive in approach, it provides detailed instruction in uncertainty evaluation to accommodate the variety of apparatus and instrumentation that may be employed. 5.2x00a0;This guide is intended primarily for calibrating handheld infrared thermometers. However, the techniques described in this guide may also be appropriate for calibrating other classes of radiation thermometers. It may also be of help to those calibrating thermal imagers. 5.3x00a0;This guide specifies the necessary elements of the report of calibration for an infrared thermometer. The required elements are intended as a communication tool to help the end user of these instruments make accurate measurements. The elements also provide enough information, so that the results of the calibration can be reproduced in a separate laboratory. 1.1x00a0;This guide covers electronic instruments intended for measurement of temperature by detecting the intensity of thermal radiation exchanged between the subject of measurement and the sensor. 1.2x00a0;The devices covered by this guide are referred to as infrared thermometers in this document. 1.3x00a0;The infrared thermometers covered in this guide are instruments that are intended to measure temperatures below 1000x00b0;C, measure thermal radiation over a wide bandwidth in the infrared region, and are direct-reading in temperature. 1.4x00a0;This guide covers best practice in calibrating infrared thermometers. It addresses concerns that will help the user perform more accurate calibrations. It also provides a structure for calculation of uncertainties and reporting of calibration results to include uncertainty. 1.5x00a0;Details on the design and construction of infrared thermometers are not covered in this guide. 1.6x00a0;This guide does not cover infrared thermometry above 1000x00b0;C. It does not address the use of narrowband infrared thermometers or infrared thermometers that do not indicate temperature directly. 1.7x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.8x00a0;The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

Standard Practice for ?Calibration and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;A thermocouple connector, exposed to a temperature difference, contributes to the output of a thermocouple circuit. The output uncertainty allocated to the connector depends on the connector design and temperature gradient. 5.2x00a0;Connector performance can be classified based on the results of this method and used as part of a component specification. 5.3x00a0;The method can be used as an engineering tool for evaluating different connector designs tested under similar thermal conditions. 1.1x00a0;This standard describes a thermal emf test method for base-metal thermocouple connectors including Types E, J, K, N and T. Standard connectors such as found in Specifications E1129/E1129M and E1684 as well as non-standard connector configurations and connector components can be evaluated using this method. 1.2x00a0;The measured emf is reported as an equivalent temperature deviation or error relative to a reference thermocouple of the same type. This method can be used to verify deviations introduced by the connector greater than or equal to 1x00b0;C. 1.3x00a0;The connector is tested with thermocouple contacts axially aligned with a temperature gradient using a specified thermal boundary condition. The actual temperature difference developed across the connector and corresponding error will depend on the connector design. 1.4x00a0;Connector contacts are often fabricated from raw materials having temperature-emf relationships in accordance with Specification E230. However, verifying Specification E230 tolerances is not within the scope of this method. 1.5x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Evaluating Thermal EMF Properties of Base-Metal Thermocouple Connectors

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施

5.1x00a0;For users or manufacturers of thermocouples, this test method provides a means of verifying the emf-temperature characteristics of the material prior to use. 5.2x00a0;This test method can be used to calibrate a thermocouple for use as a reference, or it can be used to calibrate thermocouples representing a batch of purchased, assembled thermocouples. 5.3x00a0;This test method can be used for the verification of the conformance of thermocouple materials to temperature tolerances for specifications such as the tables in Specification E230 or other special specifications as required for commercial, military, or research applications. 1.1x00a0;This test method describes the principles, apparatus, and procedure for calibrating thermocouples by comparison with a reference thermometer. Calibrations are covered over temperature ranges appropriate to the individual types of thermocouples within an overall range from approximately x2212;195 to 1700 x00b0;C (x2212;320 to 3100 x00b0;F). 1.2x00a0;In general, this test method is applicable to unused thermocouples. This test method does not apply to used thermocouples due to their potential material inhomogeneityx2014;the effects of which cannot be identified or quantified by standard calibration techniques. Thermocouples with large-diameter thermoelements and sheathed thermocouples may require special care to control thermal conduction losses. 1.3x00a0;In this test method, all values of temperature are based on the International Temperature Scale of 1990. See Guide E1594. 1.4x00a0;This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples By Comparison Techniques

ICS
17.200.20 (Temperature-measuring instruments)
CCS
发布
2013
实施



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