75.160.20 (Liquid fuels) 标准查询与下载



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5.1x00a0;Trace elemental analysis is used to indicate the level of contamination of middle distillate fuels. Trace metals in turbine fuels can cause corrosion and deposition on turbine components at elevated temperatures. Some diesel fuels have specification limit requirements for trace metals to guard against engine deposits. Trace level copper in middle distillate aviation turbine fuel can significantly accelerate thermal instability of the fuel leading to oxidation and production of detrimental insoluble deposits in the engine. 5.2x00a0;Gas turbine fuel oil Specification D2880 provides recommended upper limits for five trace metals (calcium, lead, sodium, potassium, and vanadium). Military specification MIL-DTL-16884 for naval distillate fuel sets requirements for maximum concentrations of the same five metals. Both specifications designate Test Method D3605, an atomic absorption/flame emission method, for the quantitative analysis of four of the metals. Test Method D3605 does not cover potassium. This test method provides an alternative to Test Method D3605, covers potassium and a number of additional elements. 5.3x00a0;There are several sources of multi-element contamination of naval distillate fuel. Sea water is pumped into the diesel fuel tanks (as ballast) to trim ships. Also, some of the oilers (fuel supply ships) have dirty tanks. Corrosion products come from unlined tanks, piping, pumps, and heat exchangers. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of selected elements in middle distillate fuels by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The specific elements are listed in Table 1. The concentration range of this test method is approximately 0.18201;mg/kg to 2.0 mg/kg. The test method may be used for concentrations outside of this range; however, the precision statements may not be applicable. Middle distillate fuels covered in this test method have all distillation fractions contained within the boiling range of 1508201;x00b0;C to 3908201;x00b0;C. This includes, but is not limited to, diesel fuels and aviation turbine fuels. 1.2x00a0;This test method is not intended to analyze insoluble particulates. However, very small particulate matter (smaller than a micrometre) will be carried into the plasma and be included in the quantitative analysis. 1.3x00a0;This test method may give a result that is higher than the true value if an analyte is present in the sample in a form which is sufficiently volatile. For example, hexamethyldisiloxane will generate a biased high result for silicon. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.5x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Middle Distillate Fuels by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

4.1x00a0;This test method provides for the precise measurement of the total sulfur content of samples within the scope of this test method with minimal sample preparation and analyst involvement. The typical time for each analysis is five minutes. 4.2x00a0;Knowledge of the sulfur content of diesel fuels, gasolines, and refinery process streams used to blend gasolines is important for process control as well as the prediction and control of operational problems such as unit corrosion and catalyst poisoning, and in the blending of products to commodity specifications. 4.3x00a0;Various federal, state, and local agencies regulate the sulfur content of some petroleum products, including gasoline and diesel fuel. Unbiased and precise determination of sulfur in these products is critical to compliance with regulatory standards. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of total sulfur by monochromatic wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF) spectrometry in single-phase gasoline, diesel fuel, refinery process streams used to blend gasoline and diesel, jet fuel, kerosine, biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and gasoline-ethanol blends. Note 1:x00a0;Volatile samples such as high-vapor-pressure gasolines or light hydrocarbons might not meet the stated precision because of the evaporation of light components during the analysis. 1.2x00a0;The range of this test method is between the pooled limit of quantitation (PLOQ) value (calculated by procedures consistent with Practice D6259) of 3.28201;mg/kg total sulfur and the highest level sample in the round robin, 28228201;mg/kg total sulfur. 1.3x00a0;Samples containing oxygenates can be analyzed with this test method provided the matrix of the calibration standards is either matched to the sample matrices or the matrix correction described in Section 5 or Annex A1 is applied to the results. The conditions for matrix matching and matrix correction are provided in the Interferences section (Section 5). 1.4x00a0;Samples with sulfur content above 28228201;mg/kg can be analyzed after dilution with appropriate solvent (see 5.4). The precision and bias of sulfur determinations on diluted samples has not been determined and may not be the same as shown for neat samples (Section 15). 1.5x00a0;When the elemental composition of the samples differ significantly from the calibration standards used to prepare the calibration curve, the cautions and recommendation in Section 5 should be carefully observed. 1.6x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.7x00a0;This standard does......

Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers fuel blend grades of 6 volume percent to 20 volume percent (%) biodiesel with the remainder being a light middle or middle distillate diesel fuel, collectively designated as B6 to B20. These grades are suitable for various types of diesel engines. 1.1.1x00a0;The biodiesel component of the blend shall conform to the requirements of Specification D6751. The remainder of the fuel shall be a light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel conforming to Specification D975 grades No. 1-D and No. 2-D of any sulfur level specified with the following exceptions. The light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel whose sulfur level, aromatic level, cetane, or lubricity falls outside of Specification D975 may be blended with biodiesel meeting Specification D6751, provided the finished mixtures meets this specification. 1.1.2x00a0;The fuel sulfur grades are described as follows: 1.1.2.1x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S15x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 15 ppm sulfur. 1.1.2.2x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S500x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 500 ppm sulfur. 1.1.2.3x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S5000x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 5000 ppm sulfur. 1.2x00a0;This specification prescribes the required properties of B6 to B20 biodiesel blends at the time and place of delivery. The specification requirements may be applied at other points in the production and distribution system when provided by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier. 1.2.1x00a0;Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations that may be more restrictive. Note 1:x00a0;The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate diesel fuel oils. For more information on this subject, see Guide D4865. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20)

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers four grades of biodiesel (B100) for use as a blend component with middle distillate fuels. These grades are described as follows: 1.1.1x00a0;Grade No. 1-B S15x2014;A special purpose biodiesel blendstock intended for use in middle distillate fuel applications which can be sensitive to the presence of partially reacted glycerides, including those applications requiring good low temperature operability, and also requiring a fuel blend component with 15 ppm sulfur (maximum). 1.1.2x00a0;Grade No. 1-B S500x2014;A special purpose biodiesel blendstock intended for use in middle distillate fuel applications which can be sensitive to the presence of partially reacted glycerides, including those applications requiring good low temperature operability, and also requiring a fuel blend component with 500 ppm sulfur (maximum). 1.1.3x00a0;Grade No. 2-B S15x2014;A general purpose biodiesel blendstock intended for use in middle distillate fuel applications that require a fuel blend component with 15 ppm sulfur (maximum). 1.1.4x00a0;Grade No. 2-B S500x2014;A general purpose biodiesel blendstock intended for use in middle distillate fuel applications that require a fuel blend component with 500 ppm sulfur (maximum). 1.2x00a0;This specification prescribes the required properties of diesel fuels at the time and place of delivery. The specification requirements may be applied at other points in the production and distribution system when provided by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier. 1.3x00a0;Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which may be more restrictive. Note 1:x00a0;The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate fuel oils with which biodiesel may be blended. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification (see Note 1) covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades are described as follows: 1.1.1x00a0;Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 are middle distillate fuels for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 are particularly adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel. 1.1.2x00a0;Grades B6x2013;B20 S500 and B6x2013;B20 S5000 are middle distillate fuel/biodiesel blends for use in domestic and small industrial burners. 1.1.3x00a0;Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 are heavy distillate fuels or middle distillate/residual fuel blends used in commercial/industrial burners equipped for this viscosity range. 1.1.4x00a0;Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 are residual fuels of increasing viscosity and boiling range, used in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization. Note 1:x00a0;For information on the significance of the terminology and test methods used in this specification, see Appendix X1. Note 2:x00a0;A more detailed description of the grades of fuel oils is given in X1.3. 1.2x00a0;This specification is for the use of purchasing agencies in formulating specifications to be included in contracts for purchases of fuel oils and for the guidance of consumers of fuel oils in the selection of the grades most suitable for their needs. 1.3x00a0;Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which can be more restrictive. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 3:x00a0;The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate burner fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.

Standard Specification for Fuel Oils

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression ignition engines. 5.2x00a0;This test method is used by engine manufacturers, petroleum refiners and marketers, and in commerce as a primary specification measurement related to matching of fuels and engines. 5.3x00a0;Cetane number is determined at constant speed in a precombustion chamber type compression ignition test engine. The relationship of test engine performance to full scale, variable speed, variable load engines is not completely understood. 5.4x00a0;This test method may be used for unconventional fuels such as synthetics, vegetable oils, and the like. However, the relationship to the performance of such materials in full scale engines is not completely understood. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of the rating of diesel fuel oil in terms of an arbitrary scale of cetane numbers using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, indirect injected diesel engine. 1.2x00a0;The cetane number scale covers the range from zero (0) to 100, but typical testing is in the range of 30 to 65 cetane number. 1.3x00a0;The values for operating conditions are stated in SI units and are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are the historical inch-pound units for information only. In addition, the engine measurements continue to be in inch-pound units because of the extensive and expensive tooling that has been created for these units. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For more specific warning statements, see Annex A1.

Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;Vapor pressure is an important physical property of liquid spark-ignition engine fuels. It provides an indication of how a fuel will perform under different operating conditions. For example, vapor pressure is a factor in determining whether a fuel will cause vapor lock at high ambient temperature or at high altitude, or will provide easy starting at low ambient temperature. 5.2x00a0;Petroleum product specifications generally include vapor pressure limits to ensure products of suitable volatility performance. Note 3:x00a0;Vapor pressure of fuels is regulated by various government agencies. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers and is applicable to gasolines and gasoline-oxygenate blends with a vapor pressure range from 358201;kPa to 1008201;kPa (58201;psi to 158201;psi) (see Note 2). This test method, a modification of Test Method D323 (Reid Method), provides two procedures to determine the vapor pressure (Note 1) of gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends. Note 1:x00a0;Because the external atmospheric pressure is counteracted by the atmospheric pressure initially present in the air chamber, this vapor pressure is an absolute pressure at 37.88201;x00b0;C (1008201;x00b0;F) in kilopascals (pounds-force per square inch). This vapor pressure differs from the true vapor pressure of the sample due to some small vaporization of the sample and air in the confined space. Note 2:x00a0;Vapor pressure of gasoline or gasoline-oxygenate blends below 358201;kPa (58201;psi) or greater than 1008201;kPa (158201;psi) can be determined with this test method but the precision and bias (Section 11) do not apply. For materials with a vapor pressure greater than 1008201;kPa (158201;psi), use a 08201;kPa to 2008201;kPa (08201;psi to 308201;psi) gauge as specified in the annex of Test Method D323. 1.2x00a0;Some gasoline-oxygenate blends may show a haze when cooled to 08201;x00b0;C to 18201;x00b0;C. If a haze is observed in 9.4, it shall be indicated in the reporting of results. The precision and bias statements for hazy samples have not been determined (see Note 7). 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warnings are given in 7.5,

Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;This test method provides an indication of the relative smoke producing properties of kerosines and aviation turbine fuels in a diffusion flame. The smoke point is related to the hydrocarbon type composition of such fuels. Generally the more aromatic the fuel the smokier the flame. A high smoke point indicates a fuel of low smoke producing tendency. 5.2x00a0;The smoke point is quantitatively related to the potential radiant heat transfer from the combustion products of the fuel. Because radiant heat transfer exerts a strong influence on the metal temperature of combustor liners and other hot section parts of gas turbines, the smoke point provides a basis for correlation of fuel characteristics with the life of these components. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers two procedures for determination of the smoke point of kerosine and aviation turbine fuel, a manual procedure and an automated procedure, which give results with different precision. 1.2x00a0;An interlaboratory study was conducted in 2012 (see ASTM RR:D02-1747 for supporting data) involving 11 manual laboratories and 13 automated laboratories, with 15 samples tested in blind duplicate. The automated procedure demonstrated objective rating and superior control and should be considered the preferred approach. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Smoke Point of Kerosine and Aviation Turbine Fuel

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;The aromatic hydrocarbon content of motor diesel fuels is a factor that can affect their cetane number and exhaust emissions. The aromatic hydrocarbon content and the naphthalenes content of aviation turbine fuels affect their combustion characteristics and smoke-forming tendencies. These properties represent specifications for aviation turbine fuels (see Specification D1655). 5.2x00a0;The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulates the aromatic content of diesel fuels. California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations place limits on the total aromatics content and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of motor diesel fuel, thus requiring an appropriate analytical determination to ensure compliance with the regulations. Producers of diesel fuels will require similar determinations for process and quality control. This test method can be used to make such determinations. 5.3x00a0;This test method is applicable to materials in the boiling range of motor diesel fuels and is unaffected by fuel coloration. Test Method D1319, which has been mandated by the USEPA for the determination of aromatics in motor diesel fuel, excludes materials with final boiling points greater than 3158201;x00b0;C (6008201;x00b0;F) from its scope. Test Method D2425 is applicable to the determination of both total aromatics and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel, but is much more costly and time-consuming to perform. 5.4x00a0;Results obtained by this test method have been shown to be statistically more precise than those obtained from Test Method D1319 for typical diesel fuels, and this test method has a shorter analysis time.3 Cooperative study data4 have found this test method to be more precise than the published precision of Test Method D1319 when applied to aviation turbine fuels and diesel fuels. Results from this test method for total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are also expected to be at least as precise as those of Test Method D2425. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of the total amounts of monoaromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in motor diesel fuels, aviation turbine fuels, and blend stocks by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The range of aromatics concentration to which this test method is applicable is from 1 to 75 mass %. The range of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to which this test method is applicable is from 0.5 to 50 mass %. 1.2x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are for information only. 1.3x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Determination of the Aromatic Content and Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Diesel Fuels and Aviation Turbine Fuels By Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;Ethers, alcohols, and other oxygenates can be added to gasoline to increase octane number and to reduce emissions. Type and concentration of various oxygenates are specified and regulated to ensure acceptable commercial gasoline quality. Drivability, vapor pressure, phase separation, exhaust, and evaporative emissions are some of the concerns associated with oxygenated fuels. 5.2x00a0;This test method is applicable to both quality control in the production of gasoline and for the determination of deliberate or extraneous oxygenate additions or contamination. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of ethers and alcohols in gasolines by gas chromatography. Specific compounds determined are methyl tert-butylether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE), tert-amylmethylether (TAME), diisopropylether (DIPE), methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-propanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, sec -butanol, n-butanol, and tert-pentanol (tert-amylalcohol). 1.2x00a0;Individual ethers are determined from 0.208201;mass8201;% to 20.0 mass8201;%. Individual alcohols are determined from 0.208201;mass8201;% to 12.0 mass8201;%. Equations used to convert to mass8201;% oxygen and to volume8201;% of individual compounds are provided. At concentrations <0.20 mass8201;%, it is possible that hydrocarbons may interfere with several ethers and alcohols. The reporting limit of 0.20 mass8201;% was tested for gasolines containing a maximum of 10 volume8201;% olefins. It may be possible that for gasolines containing >10 volume8201;% olefins, the interference may be >0.20 mass8201;%. Annex A1 gives a chromatogram showing the interference observed with a gasoline containing 10 volume8201;% olefins. 1.3x00a0;Alcohol-based fuels, such as M-85 and E-85, MTBE product, ethanol product, and denatured alcohol, are specifically excluded from this test method. The methanol content of M-85 fuel is considered beyond the operating range of the system. 1.4x00a0;Benzene, while detected, cannot be quantified using this test method and must be analyzed by alternate methodology (see Test Method D3606). 1.5x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. Alternate units, in common usage, are also provided to increase clarity and aid the users of this test method. 1.6x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with i......

Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

4.1x00a0;Accurate gas chromatographic determination of trace levels of thiophene in benzene involves special analytical problems because of the difficulties of trace level analysis. These problems arise from the low concentration levels that need to be measured, the type of column and detector needed for analysis, and the potential interference from the benzene matrix. 4.2x00a0;This test method was found applicable for determining thiophene in refined benzene conforming to the specifications described in Specifications D2359, D4734, and D5871 and may be applicable toward other grades of benzene if the user has taken the necessary precautions as described in the text. 4.3x00a0;This test method was developed as an alternative technique to Test Method D4735. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of thiophene in refined benzene using gas chromatography and sulfur selective detection. The test method is applicable to the determination of thiophene at levels of 0.02 to 2.18 mg thiophene per kg in benzene (mg/kg) on the AED, 0.03 to 1.87 mg/kg on the PFPD, and 0.03 to 2.11 mg/kg on the SCD. The range of the test method may be extended by modifying the sample injection volume, split ratios, calibration range, or sample dilution with thiophene-free solvent. 1.2x00a0;In determining the conformance of the test results using this method to applicable specifications, results shall be rounded off in accordance with the rounding-off method of Practice E29. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements, see Section 7.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Thiophene in Refined Benzene by Gas Chromatography and Sulfur Selective Detection

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;The ability of a fuel to dissipate charge that has been generated during pumping and filtering operations is controlled by its electrical conductivity, which depends upon its content of ion species. If the conductivity is sufficiently high, charges dissipate fast enough to prevent their accumulation and dangerously high potentials in a receiving tank are avoided. 1.1x00a0;These test methods cover the determination of the electrical conductivity of aviation and distillate fuels with and without a static dissipator additive. The test methods normally give a measurement of the conductivity when the fuel is uncharged, that is, electrically at rest (known as the rest conductivity). 1.2x00a0;Two test methods are available for field tests of fuel conductivity. These are: (1) portable meters for the direct measurement in tanks or the field or laboratory measurement of fuel samples, and (2) in-line meters for the continuous measurement of fuel conductivities in a fuel distribution system. In using portable meters, care must be taken in allowing the relaxation of residual electrical charges before measurement and in preventing fuel contamination. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see 7.1, 7.1.1, and 11.2.1.

Standard Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity of Aviation and Distillate Fuels

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

4.1x00a0;The freezing point of an aviation fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel remains free of solid hydrocarbon crystals that can restrict the flow of fuel through filters if present in the fuel system of the aircraft. The temperature of the fuel in the aircraft tank normally falls during flight depending on aircraft speed, altitude, and flight duration. The freezing point of the fuel must always be lower than the minimum operational tank temperature. 4.2x00a0;Freezing point is a requirement in Specifications D910 and D1655. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers the determination of the temperature below which solid hydrocarbon crystals may form in aviation turbine fuels and aviation gasoline. Note 1:x00a0;The interlaboratory program that generated the precisions for this test method did not include aviation gasoline. 1.2x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3x00a0;WARNINGx2014;Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAx2019;s websitex2014;http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htmx2014;for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 5.4, Section 6, and 8.3.

Standard Test Method for Freezing Point of Aviation Fuels

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers the selection of fuels for gas turbines, excepting gas turbines used in aircraft, for the guidance of interested parties such as turbine manufacturers and the suppliers and purchasers of fuel oils. The specification sets forth the properties of fuels at the time and place of custody transfer to the user. 1.2x00a0;Three appendixes are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute a requirement of this specification unless mutually agreed upon between the interested parties. 1.2.1x00a0;Appendix X1 describes the five grades of gas turbine fuels covered by this specification. Further, it states the significance of various test methods used in inspecting the fuels. 1.2.2x00a0;Appendix X2 discusses the sources of fuel contaminants and notes the significance of such contaminants in the operation of gas turbines and gas turbine fuel systems. The particular significance of trace metals in gas turbine fuels is noted. Upper limits of trace metals are recommended for the various grades of gas turbine fuels, but these recommended limits do not constitute a requirement of the specification unless mutually agreed upon by the interested parties. Limitations due to the use of used or recycled oil are also noted. Note 1:x00a0;The gas turbine operator should consult Practice D4418 for methods of ensuring fuels of adequate cleanliness and for guidance on long-term storage of distillate fuels and on liquids from non-petroleum sources as gas turbine. Note 2:x00a0;Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations which may be more restrictive. Note 3:x00a0;The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate gas turbine fuel oils. For more information on the subject, see Guide D4865.

Standard Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers seven grades of diesel fuel oils suitable for various types of diesel engines. These grades are described as follows: 1.1.1x00a0;Grade No. 1-D S15x2014;A special-purpose, light middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 15 ppm sulfur (maximum) and higher volatility than that provided by Grade No. 2-D S15 fuel.2 1.1.2x00a0;Grade No. 1-D S500x2014;A special-purpose, light middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 500 ppm sulfur (maximum) and higher volatility than that provided by Grade No. 2-D S500 fuel.2 1.1.3x00a0;Grade No. 1-D S5000x2014;A special-purpose, light middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 5000 ppm sulfur (maximum) and higher volatility than that provided by Grade No. 2-D S5000 fuels. 1.1.4x00a0;Grade No. 2-D S15x2014;A general purpose, middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 15 ppm sulfur (maximum). It is especially suitable for use in applications with conditions of varying speed and load.2 1.1.5x00a0;Grade No. 2-D S500x2014;A general-purpose, middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 500 ppm sulfur (maximum). It is especially suitable for use in applications with conditions of varying speed and load.2 1.1.6x00a0;Grade No. 2-D S5000x2014;A general-purpose, middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications requiring a fuel with 5000 ppm sulfur (maximum), especially in conditions of varying speed and load. 1.1.7x00a0;Grade No. 4-Dx2014;A heavy distillate fuel, or a blend of distillate and residual oil, for use in low- and medium-speed diesel engines in applications involving predominantly constant speed and load. Note 1:x00a0;A more detailed description of the grades of diesel fuel oils is given in X1.2. Note 2:x00a0;The Sxxx designation has been adopted to distinguish grades by sulfur rather than using words such as x201c;Low Sulfurx201d; as previously because the number of sulfur grades is growing and the word descriptions were thought to be not precise. S5000 grades correspond to the so-called x201c;regularx201d; sulfur grades, the previous No. 1-D and No. 2-D. S500 gra......

Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;Excessive levels of hydrogen sulfide in the vapor phase above residual fuel oils in storage tanks can result in health hazards, violation of local occupational health and safety regulations, and public complaint. An additional concern is corrosion that can be caused by the presence of H2S during refining or other activities. Control measures to maintain safe levels of H2S require a precise method for the measurement of potentially hazardous levels of H2S in fuel oils. (Warningx2014;Safety. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very dangerous, toxic, explosive and flammable, colorless and transparent gas which can be found in crude oil and can be formed during the manufacture of the fuel at the refinery and can be released during handling, storage, and distribution. At very low concentrations, the gas has the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. However, at higher concentrations, it causes a loss of smell, headaches, and dizziness, and at very high concentrations, it causes instantaneous death. It is strongly recommended that personnel involved in the testing for hydrogen sulfide are aware of the hazards of vapor-phase H2S and have in place appropriate processes and procedures to manage the risk of exposure.) 5.2x00a0;This test method was developed so refiners, fuel terminal operators, and independent testing laboratory personnel can rapidly and precisely measure the amount of H2S in residual fuel oils and distillate blend stocks, with a minimum of training, in a wide range of locations. 5.3x00a0;Test Method D5705 provides a simple and consistent field test method for the rapid determination of H2S in the residual fuel oils vapor phase. However it does not necessarily simulate the vapor phase H2S concentration of a fuel storage tank nor does it provide any indication of the liquid phase H2S concentration. 5.4x00a0;Test Method D6021 does measure the H2S concentration of H2S in the liquid phase, however it requires a laboratory and a skilled operator to perform the complex procedure and calculations, and does not offer any reproducibility data. This test method (D7621) offers a 15 min automated test, simplicity, full precision, and a degree of portability. 5.5x00a0;H2S concentrations in the liquid and vapor phase attempt to reach equilibrium in a static system. However, this equilibrium and the related liquid and vapor concentrations can vary greatly depending on temperature and the chemical composition of the liquid phase. The equilibrium of the vapor phase is disrupted the moment a vent or access point is opened to collect a sample. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers p......

Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel Oils by Rapid Liquid Phase Extraction

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers fuel blend grades of 6 volume percent to 20 volume percent (%) biodiesel with the remainder being a light middle or middle distillate diesel fuel, collectively designated as B6 to B20. These grades are suitable for various types of diesel engines. 1.1.1x00a0;The biodiesel component of the blend shall conform to the requirements of Specification D6751. The remainder of the fuel shall be a light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel conforming to Specification D975 grades No. 1-D and No. 2-D of any sulfur level specified with the following exceptions. The light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel whose sulfur level, aromatic level, cetane, or lubricity falls outside of Specification D975 may be blended with biodiesel meeting Specification D6751, provided the finished mixtures meets this specification. 1.1.2x00a0;The fuel sulfur grades are described as follows: 1.1.2.1x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S15x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 158201;ppm sulfur. 1.1.2.2x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S500x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 5008201;ppm sulfur. 1.1.2.3x00a0;Grade B6 to B20 S5000x2014;A fuel with a maximum of 50008201;ppm sulfur. 1.2x00a0;This specification prescribes the required properties of B6 to B20 biodiesel blends at the time and place of delivery. The specification requirements may be applied at other points in the production and distribution system when provided by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier. 1.2.1x00a0;Nothing in this specification shall preclude observance of federal, state, or local regulations that may be more restrictive. Note 1:x00a0;The generation and dissipation of static electricity can create problems in the handling of distillate diesel fuel oils. For more information on this subject, see Guide D4865. 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20)

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2015
实施

5.1x00a0;This test method is intended for use in evaluating the cleanliness of middle distillate fuels, and biodiesel and biodiesel blends for specifications and quality control purposes. 5.2x00a0;The filter media specified in the three procedures are all suitable for the materials in the Scope. Specifications calling up this test method should state the procedure required. 5.3x00a0;A change in filtration performance after storage or pretreatment can be indicative of changes of fuel condition. 5.4x00a0;The filterability of fuels varies depending on filter porosity and structure and therefore results from this test method might not correlate with full scale filtration. 5.5x00a0;Causes of poor filterability in industrial/refinery filters include fuel degradation products, contaminants (including water) picked up during storage or transfer, effects due to temperature or composition for bio fuels, incompatibility of commingled fuels, or interaction of the fuel with the filter media. Any of these could correlate with orifice or filter system plugging, or both. 5.6x00a0;The results of the FBT test can range from 1 with a fuel with very good filterability, to over 100 for a fuel with poor filterability. The selection of a single FBT number to define a pass or fail criteria is not possible as this will be dependent on the fuel type and applications. 1.1x00a0;This test method covers three procedures for the determination of the filter blocking tendency (FBT) and filterability of middle distillate fuel oils and liquid fuels such as biodiesel and biodiesel blends. The 3 procedures and associated filter types, are applicable to fuels within the viscosity range of 1.3 to 6.0 mm2/s at 40x00b0;C. Note 1:x00a0;ASTM specification fuels falling within the scope of this test method are: Specifications D396 Grades No 1 and 2; Specification D975 Grades 1-D, low sulfur 1-D and 2-D; Specification D2880 Grades 1-GT and 2-GT; Specification D6751. 1.2x00a0;This test method is not applicable to fuels that contain free (undissolved) water (see 7.3). 1.3x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Test Method for Determining Filter Blocking Tendency

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
发布
2014
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers formulating specifications for purchases of a high-octane (MON) unleaded fuel under contract and is intended solely for use by purchasing agencies.2 1.2x00a0;This specification defines a specific type of high-octane (MON) unleaded fuel for use as an aviation spark-ignition fuel. It does not include all fuels satisfactory for reciprocating aviation engines. Certain equipment or conditions of use may permit a wider, or require a narrower, range of characteristics than is shown by this specification. 1.3x00a0;This specification, unless otherwise provided, prescribes the required properties of unleaded fuel at the time and place of delivery. 1.4x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5x00a0;This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Specification for High-Octane Unleaded Fuel

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
E31
发布
2014
实施

1.1x00a0;This specification covers the requirements for automotive fuel blends of ethanol and gasoline for use in ground vehicles equipped with ethanol fuel blend flexible-fuel spark-ignition engines. Fuel produced to this specification contains 51 to 83 volume % ethanol. This fuel is for use in flexible-fuel vehicles and is sometimes referred to at retail as x201c;Ethanol Flex-Fuel.x201d; Appendix X1 discusses the significance of the properties specified. 1.2x00a0;The vapor pressure of ethanol fuel blends is varied for seasonal climatic changes. Vapor pressure is increased at lower temperatures to ensure adequate flexible-fuel vehicle operability. Ethanol content and selection of hydrocarbon blendstock are adjusted by the blender to meet these vapor pressure requirements. 1.3x00a0;This specification formerly covered Fuel Ethanol (Ed70-Ed85) for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines, also known commercially as E85. The nomenclature x201c;fuel ethanolx201d; has been changed to x201c;ethanol fuel blendsx201d; to distinguish this product from denatured fuel ethanol Specification D4806. To facilitate blending of ethanol fuel blends that meet seasonal vapor pressure requirements, a new lower minimum ethanol content has been established. 1.4x00a0;The United States government has established various programs for alternative fuels. Many of the definitions of alternative fuel used by these programs may be more restrictive than the requirements of this specification. See 4.1.2.1 for additional information on alternative fuels containing ethanol. 1.5x00a0;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6x00a0;The following safety hazard caveat pertains only to the test method portion, 8.1.8, of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Standard Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines

ICS
75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
CCS
E31
发布
2014
实施



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